The Civil War uniform for both Northern troops and Southern troops was one of the most basic and important things a solider could have. Uniforms were more than just clothes to wear. They showed your friends and enemies alike what side you were on, they showed what branch of service you were in Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery. The United States controlled the factories and had massive industrial capacity which was able to produce high quality wool uniforms for all of their troops. United States troops looked like soldiers, they all looked the same and were outfitted very well.
Artifact courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution. Civil War Uniform. This caused the British to mistake them for militia, and underestimate their prowess at arms. Statfs uniforms regardless of being Union or Confederate had prominent markings on them which identified whether a soldier was an enlisted man or an officer. Views Read Edit View history.
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On the upright collar of full generalslieutenant generalsmajor generalsand brigadier generals three stars were stitched within a wreath, all embroidered Confederate states uniforms Confederatte coloring. Image 4: This painting Confederate states uniforms French soldiers during the Franco-Prussian War reflects the similarities Looking ass sleeping the French and Confederate uniforms. Ashton's jacket was made after the characteristic features had been well established, but is nonetheless typical of uniforma early uniorms production, being made with artillery edging and of jeans material. For all Officers unigorms, steel grey or white, single breasted, standing collar, with nine small buttons in front, and not to show below the coat. The original butternut color was derived from Northern home dying using walnut hulls of the white walnut tree, commonly known also as the butternut tree. The Confederate uniform origins trace a diverse lineage. Mayfield, Company H, 4th Texas Cavalry, wears a cadet gray jacket and light blue trousers issued from the Houston Depot on about January 1, More elaborate braiding indicated higher rank and some knots almost reached the shoulder. Marines also served on Confederate warships. The first pattern was Confederate states uniforms colored band, denoting the branch of service, with the crown and sides to be made of Cadet Gray cloth. Image The Confederate regulation frock coat was patterned after the Austrian army sharpshooter Jaeger uniform.
Each branch of the Confederate States armed forces had their own service dress and fatigue uniforms and regulations regarding them during the American Civil War , which lasted from April 12, until May
- Each branch of the Confederate States armed forces had their own service dress and fatigue uniforms and regulations regarding them during the American Civil War , which lasted from April 12, until May
- The Civil War uniform for both Northern troops and Southern troops was one of the most basic and important things a solider could have.
- Also see the Civil War Accouterments page for leathergoods holsters, belts, cartridge boxes , canteens, blankets, musical instruments and other military accouterments.
- It was established by an act of the Confederate Congress on March 16,
- Adolphus Confederate Uniforms offers Frederick R.
Adolphus Confederate Uniforms offers Frederick R. While many seasoned Confederate buffs might find this very simplistic, I have been asked questions regarding these topics so often that I think this information will be useful for beginners as well as experienced uniformologists. The Confederate uniform origins trace a diverse lineage. This light shade of bluish-gray was not any darker than the American army sky blue.
But American cadet gray was not to become "Confederate" gray. It was too difficult to make in the South in large quantities, given limitations in resources, such as color fast dyes, mordants and manufacturing capacity. Instead, the standard British army, darker blue-gray became Confederate gray due to its availability through the blockade. Therefore, the Confederate uniform quickly acquired British roots, in addition to its American antecedents.
Image 1: The 6th U. Infantry Regiment at the Battle of Chippewa wore the gray fatigue jacket, normally used by state militias, instead of the blue tailcoats of the regular army. This caused the British to mistake them for militia, and underestimate their prowess at arms. The American army's use of gray uniforms began about this time. Image courtesy of the U. Image 2: Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth's frock coat reflects the pre-war use of cadet gray by state forces and its light shade.
Image 3: George W. Its darker color contrasts sharply with the lighter, pre-war shade. The dark shade, imported, blue-gray kersey of Wilson's jacket reflects what was typical of the Confederate army. Artifact courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.
The uniform also had a French lineage. This is reflected in regulation cap, officially described as a kepi, but cut in the chasseur pattern with its hallmark countersunk crown, and low side pieces.
Aside from the regulations, contemporaries seldom used the term "kepi," instead calling the regulation headgear a cap. The word "kepi," however, has gained currency since the war's end and become an iconic feature of the Confederate uniform.
The official double-breasted frock coat was also similar to both the French army frock of the time, and to the Austrian army tunic. In fact, Marschall copied both the design and color of the Austrian sharpshooter's tunic, it being gray with green-colored facings. British Lieutenant Colonel James Fremantle noted this during his travels through the Confederacy, remarking, "Most of the officers were dressed in uniform that is neat and serviceable - a bluish-gray frock coat of a color similar to Austrian yagers.
As such, Confederate frocks almost always had long skirts, despite what was prescribed in the regulations. The officer's elaborate sleeve and cap braid also followed the French style, as did the that lack of shoulder straps.
The officer collar rank closely matched the Austrian rank insignia, while the enlisted chevrons copied the American pattern. Image 4: This painting of French soldiers during the Franco-Prussian War reflects the similarities between the French and Confederate uniforms.
The kepi and double-breasted frocks, as well as the officer sleeve and cap braid were models for the Confederate uniform. Image in the public domain; Battle of Bapaume, General Faidherbe. Image 5: A French artillery crew during the Franco-Prussian War in wears the style of frock coat and kepi that the Confederate army used as a model for their own uniforms.
Image in the public domain. While Magruder commanded the District of Texas, he is thought to have obtained this kepi, specially made for him in France, and imported through the blockade. Image courtesy of the Museum of the Confederacy. Image 7: The official Confederate uniform regulations of called for a cap "similar in form to that known as the French kepi. During the war the word was seldom used: everyone called it a "cap. Lyons collection. Image 8: Virginia militiamen stand guard at John Brown's execution in December By this time, the French style kepi had become an established American militia cap.
The front of the band comes to a point on this variant, similar to that of the U. M shako. Despite regulations prescribing dark blue bands and branch-of-service color sides and crown, Confederate depots continued to make the simpler M cap throughout the war. The M cap had a branch-of-service color band with gray sides and crown.
Image courtesy of the Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia. Image The Confederate regulation frock coat was patterned after the Austrian army sharpshooter Jaeger uniform. This Germanic influence is not surprising, considering that Prussian artist and immigrant, Nicola Marschall designed the Confederate uniform. Image courtesy of the Kirk D. The short skirt defied the custom of the day, and Confederate officers universally ignored the regulation, wearing their frock skirts to the top of the knee.
The Austrian collar rank also formed the basis for Confederate officer rank. Image in the public domain; lithograph by Eduard Kaiser, Image Nicola Marshall used the Austrian Jaeger tunic as the basis for the Confederate frock coat.
This image is dated Image in the public domain, artwork from A. Image Marschall was especially taken with the Jaeger tunic's color scheme: gray with green facings collar, cuffs, edging. He substituted American branch-of-service colors for Jaeger green.
Marschall's regulation uniform was too elaborate and expensive to produce, and the quartermaster department simplified the issued uniform to gray jackets and pants. Two other American traits influenced the Confederate uniform: the branch-of-service colors, and the light blue pants. The Confederate regulations specified light blue as the pants color, probably intending the same "sky blue" shade as the Federal uniform had. This proved troublesome to make, however, given a lack of resources, so usually pants were made of the same color cloth as the tunic.
Quartermasters did make limited quantities of light blue pants, however, when they had access to imported light blue cloth.
The imported light blue cloth was different in color from the pre-war American sky blue cloth, just as the imported cadet gray was different from peacetime cadet gray.
The Confederates imported a shade called "light French blue" that was darker and brighter than the Yankee sky blue. In any case, some Confederate commanders found the combination of Confederate blue-gray jackets and light blue pants too similar to the Yankee uniform, and thus confusing on the battlefield, and asked quartermasters to stop procuring the light French blue cloth.
Image Marschall followed American tradition when selecting branch-of-service colors: red for artillery; yellow for cavalry; and, light blue for infantry. He also carried over the enlisted chevrons of the "Old Army. Image The next two images show the contrast between Confederate "light French blue" and Federal "sky blue. Instead, they purchases "light French blue" from Europe as depicted in this image.
Light French blue had a darker, bolder and brighter appearance. Cloth swatch courtesy of Charles Childs, County Cloth. Image The Federal sky blue in this image is lighter that the Confederate light blue, with a duller, powder hue. The outside surface is discolored with early twentieth century, coal soot, air pollution, but the inside fabric is clean enough to discern the distinctive color of Confederate import, light blue.
Artifact courtesy of the Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia. Image Another view of Henry Redwood's trousers shows a clean surface in a torn seam. Image Thomas V. Brooke's 3rd Company, Richmond Howitzers captured Federal chausseur trousers represent the dull, powder blue color used by the North. Image The contrasting colors of imported Confederate blue cloth are compared here. Francis Goulding's vest on the left made from a Tait jacket has the distinctly dark-hued, royal blue facings.
Lieutenant John Satter's frock, on the right, is faced with light French blue. The author has found royal blue only on Tait uniforms. He has also noted that Confederate light blue trousers and trimmings are usually made of imported light French blue cloth. Artifact courtesy of Richard Ferry Military Antiques. Image The Confederate uniform regulation intended for light blue trousers. This was problematic because the South relied on imports for light blue cloth, and because the dark blue-gray jacket material worn with light blue pants resembled the Federal uniform on the battlefield.
Image Pvt. Joseph E. Mayfield, Company H, 4th Texas Cavalry, wears a cadet gray jacket and light blue trousers issued from the Houston Depot on about January 1, Both types of cloth were imported into Texas in Jones III collection.
The elaborate regulation uniform, consisting of a cadet gray, double-breasted tunic; light blue pants; and, colorful kepis was problematic from the start. The South did not have the wide array of colored cloth to make such complex uniforms, nor were quartermasters inclined to squander resources making double-breasted tunics.
In fact, the Confederate Quartermaster General published a revised set of uniforms regulations a month before the official Confederate uniform regulations appeared that prescribed a vastly simplified uniform.
The double-breasted enlisted tunic that called for fourteen large buttons and four small cuff buttons was replaced by a single-breasted jacket that required but seven large buttons and less than two-thirds the amount of cloth. The cadet gray, light blue and various trim colors red, yellow, light blue and dark blue were also superceded by a single basic uniform color of gray.
The clothing bureau settled on a loosely-defined jacket pattern that allowed for local improvisation based upon what materials a local quartermaster might have had available.
In this regards, American practicality influenced the uniform that actually prevailed over the regulations: a short jacket and pants of a matching color in "gray…or any color [available]," and sparing of materials.
The uniform was also topped off with the utilitarian, soft, wool felt slouch hat, another American influence that would symbolize the Confederate uniform both in fact and in lore.
While the enlisted, double-breasted tunic was never universally adopted, the single-breasted, enlisted frock coat was the most widely worn "mustering-in" garment for the first year or so of the war.
For a Paymaster , of less than twelve years, the same as for a Surgeon of less than twelve years. The use of the depot system meant that army-wide uniformity was impossible, as different depots had unique uniforms Columbus Depot Jackets for instance, had breast pockets, whilst Richmond Depot Jackets did not. While lieutenant colonels wore two stars on their collars, majors wore one star, which was placed in the middle of the collar. The kepi and double-breasted frocks, as well as the officer sleeve and cap braid were models for the Confederate uniform. The kepi was not specified until the Regulations, as a sky-blue kepi, reflecting the Infantry Corps, with a dark blue band, and leather visor. The important fact to keep in mind is that most of these state operations had been in operation from the beginning of the war, and all were functioning long before the Confederate quartermaster clothing bureaus started functioning.
Confederate states uniforms. for Officers, NCOs and Enlisted
Uniforms of the Confederate States Armed Forces - Wikipedia
The Civil War uniform for both Northern troops and Southern troops was one of the most basic and important things a solider could have. Uniforms were more than just clothes to wear. They showed your friends and enemies alike what side you were on, they showed what branch of service you were in Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery. The United States controlled the factories and had massive industrial capacity which was able to produce high quality wool uniforms for all of their troops.
United States troops looked like soldiers, they all looked the same and were outfitted very well. One of the most recognizable Union uniforms were worn by the Zouaves.
Their uniforms consisted of a red cap and bright red pants. Along with the Civil War uniform, Union soldiers wore a belt which held a cap box, cartridge box, bayonet with scabbard, canteen, and a blanket roll which contained a wool blanket, a shelter half and a rubber blanket and poncho. The Confederacy was not an industrial powerhouse, they did not have many manufacturing plants that could easily create thousands of uniforms.
The south was primarily an agricultural society. The Confederate uniform was usually a hodgepodge and often the soldiers looked very different from each other. Ideally Confederate uniforms would look like Union uniforms just in a different color. In reality the common soldiers of the south had poor quality uniforms that were inferior to their Union counterparts.
Officers uniforms were generally of much higher quality than the typical infantry soldier. Confederate soldiers traveled very light and did not want to be encumbered by carrying a lot of items. Their uniforms were as bare bones as possible. A typical Confederate Civil War uniform consisted of:. Confederate soldiers typically did not carry a knapsack, they fit everything they could into their haversacks, knapsacks were far too large and cumbersome to carry on a long march.
They did not carry cap boxes and cartridge boxes opting instead to use their pockets to hold their caps and cartridges. Many of them also threw away their canteens in favor of a tin cup, which was smaller, could be used to boil water and was more convenient than lugging around a canteen. Confederate soldiers traveled much lighter than their Northern counterparts.
This made marching and fighting much easier but it came at a cost. Rebel soldiers would often have to capture Union provisions, clothing and weapons in order to sustain themselves. If you are interested in reading more about the different uniforms from both sides some fantastic choices are.
As the war progressed it became increasingly more difficult for the Confederacy to produce and supply uniforms to their men. Southern uniforms during the Civil War were usually dyed to make them gray or sometimes brown, this was done to at least try to give uniformity throughout the army.
Union soldiers often referred to confederate soldiers as Butternuts or gray jackets because of the grayish brown color of their uniforms. Southern soldiers also wore short jackets and vests as well as shirts and underwear that were usually mailed to them from home.
Shoes were also a major problem for the Rebel army. A soldiers haversack or knapsack if he carried one held their rations, an extra pair of socks, writing paper, stamps and envelopes, ink and pen, razor, toothbrush, comb and any other items that each individual soldier decided to keep with them.
Civil War Uniforms identified individual soldiers and the units they belonged to. Identification included buttons, colors, and rank markings. Confederate Soldiers were also identified by the color of the hat they wore. Early war kepis in the south used solid colors. These were later changed to a thin band with the color of the branch wrapped around the base of the cap to identify the area of service.
All uniforms regardless of being Union or Confederate had prominent markings on them which identified whether a soldier was an enlisted man or an officer. The Confederate army was always in dire need of new shoes. If they could capture them they did. There has been a persistent myth about why General Robert E. Lee decided to attack Gettysburg Pennsylvania. The myth says that he chose Gettysburg because it was believed there was a large number of shoes located in the town.
This was not the case, there were no shoes in any quantity in Gettysburg that would have supplied the Army of Northern Virginia. The reason this myth occurred was because on June 30th Confederate General Henry Heth ordered General Pettigrew to go to Gettysburg and search for army supplies shoes especially. This order from General Heth is what started the myth about shoes at Gettysburg.
The problem with the theory is that Confederate General Jubal Early and his men were actually in Gettysburg four days earlier on June 26th General Early demanded that the authorities hand over supplies. The authorities of Gettysburg claimed that they had very few supplies to give them. The Confederates then searched the town for anything of value before deciding there was not much to take. If there was a large quantity of shoes in Gettysburg and there was a Confederate mission to find a large quantity of shoes, General Early would have certainly informed General Heth if he had found or captured a large stash of shoes.
Again they demanded supplies. The reason the Confederates ended up at Gettysburg is because all roads in that area lead to Gettysburg, it was only natural the Confederate and Union armies would find themselves meeting there after crossing into Pennsylvania. Civil War Uniform. Union Soldier Uniform The United States controlled the factories and had massive industrial capacity which was able to produce high quality wool uniforms for all of their troops.
Union Uniform. A typical Union soldier uniform during the Civil War consisted of: light blue pants blue overcoat with a cape dark blue jacket heavy shoes woolen socks a cap called a kepi gray woolen shirt knapsack haversack Along with the Civil War uniform, Union soldiers wore a belt which held a cap box, cartridge box, bayonet with scabbard, canteen, and a blanket roll which contained a wool blanket, a shelter half and a rubber blanket and poncho.
The Confederate Civil War Uniform The Confederacy was not an industrial powerhouse, they did not have many manufacturing plants that could easily create thousands of uniforms. Confederate Uniform. Confederate Uniforms Confederate soldiers traveled very light and did not want to be encumbered by carrying a lot of items. A typical Confederate Civil War uniform consisted of: slouch hat jacket shirt one pair of pants one pair of underwear one pair of shoes one pair of socks blanket rubber blanket haversack Confederate soldiers typically did not carry a knapsack, they fit everything they could into their haversacks, knapsacks were far too large and cumbersome to carry on a long march.
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