The official and most widely spoken language in the Virgin Islands is English. It is common to hear French Creole and Spanish spoken, particularly on St. Thomas and St. French Creole is spoken by immigrants from St. Barthelemy, St.
Join Virginn. Attempts by Virgin Islands non-native residents to speak the dialect, even out of respect, are often met with disapproval. As in most Anglophone Caribbean dialects, in Virgin Islands Creole, dental fricatives the "-th" sound are often omitted Virgin island creole speech, and replaced by dental stops the "-t" sound. Thomas and St. Croix, known as Cruciancontains many Spanish -derived words due to St.
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Socialization Infant Care. Thomas from North Carolina sometimes in late November Croix and isluhn' Virgin island creole St. Virgin Islands? Manufacturing consists of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. Martin, Musclemenxxx models the local variety of Saint Martin English spoken by the native population. An English Creole arose on Saint Croix and Virbin still spoken, although its use is generally limited to older islanders. There are many instances where words and phrases especially slang that exist on one island may not exist islabd another. Close Menu. In local vernacular, Virgin Virgin island creole Creole is rarely referred to as a creole, as locally, "creole" as well as "patois" usually refers to the French-based creoles spoken by St. Although Plath is most often referred to as a tragic figure, she is described as a driven high achiever in adolescence and young adulthood. Children are told Virgin island creole address adults as "sir" or "ma'am. When was the last time you used any of these? Standard American English is associated with social mobilityccreole it is widely used in business creolf professional circles. Their islajd was charged but unstable—by the s, Plath wrote her therapist saying Hughes beat her before she suffered a miscarriage; he cheated on her, and many scholars You tube nude boobs his mistress was pregnant at the time of Plath's suicide the mistress was Skimpy swimsuits to have gotten an abortion soon after.
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The official and most widely spoken language in the Virgin Islands is English. It is common to hear French Creole and Spanish spoken, particularly on St. Thomas and St. French Creole is spoken by immigrants from St. Barthelemy, St. Lucia, St. While English is the official language and widely spoken it is often spoken with an accent and rapidly, therefore some words may at first sound unrecognizable to a speaker of standard English.
While English is the dominant language today this was not always the case, and its dominance can be considered comparatively recent. The islands were formerly the Danish West Indies. During the years of Danish ownership the official language was Danish, however it was never established as the common language. Today it is not part of language in the Virgin Islands with the exception of Danish street names in historic areas.
Many settlers on St. The general population in those days was an array of people who spoke many languages including Danish, Irish, Dutch, Scottish, English, Spanish and French. The African slaves that were imported to the islands came from different tribes and countries and they also brought their own native languages. Within individual social circles mother tongues were spoken. To communicate with everyone in the community residents had to learn bits and pieces of other languages.
What developed from this borrowing from here and there was a Creole language. As a majority of the initial settlers were Dutch, the language that developed was a Dutch Creole. Spanish words were primarily for animals and fruits. French words retained were often verbs. Planters learned the language in order to communicate with the slaves and later the general population shared this language.
Initially sermons and classes were strictly oral and in Dutch Creole, however the missionaries gradually added books. The New Testament translated into Dutch Creole, for example. As the Creole language alone was too basic to translate such works, words from the standard Dutch language were utilized, thus creating an almost new Creole or blended Dutch Creole. This blended Dutch Creole was considered artificial as compared to what was spoken in the colloquial language.
Encouraging the move to English was British occupation in the islands between and Instruction for children attending confirmation classes were in English with Dutch Creole as a foreign language. The Dutch Creole language is today extinct in the Virgin Islands. There is little written material of the colloquial language and the religious texts that were translated were heavily blended with Dutch.
Croix was owned by the French until when the Danes bought it. By there were 5 times as many English on the island as Danes. English Creole emerged on St. Croix more so than Dutch Creole, which was more popular on St. A dialect of English Creole called Cruzan is heard on St. Croix today. Creole languages are simple with little use of grammar. Consequently even when the shift from Dutch Creole to English occurred there was still great difficultly in much of the populous with correct forms and grammar.
An English Creole formed as the populous learned English verbs, nouns and adjectives but lacked the correct rules for putting them together. Such phrases can still be heard today; often in casual conversations between locals and particularly between children.
Virgin Islands Creole English is described by some linguist as a transitional language, a bridge between Dutch Creole and standard English. The last native Dutch Creole speaker died in Today many of the words are still used, however standard English is the most widely spoken.
A characteristic of Creole English that is still very popular is the doubling of words as a way of reinforcement. These proverbs are still widely used in the Virgin Islands. Most older children and adults in the Virgin Islands can quickly switch between Creole English and standard English when having a conversation.
Planning your vacation to St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. John and Water Island will be a lot easier with this great packet of magazines and booklets. This material covers where to stay, fun things to do, culture, local events, beach guides, how to get around, plants and animals, history, tips, things to see, art galleries, shopping and so much more.
Sign up to receive Virgin Islands articles, updates and offers. Missed our last newsletter? Read it Here. Culture Menu Language. Languages Spoken in the Virgin Islands. Language History. Examples of Virgin Islands English Creole. Bomba an overbearing person. Bambola a lively dance to a distinctive drum beat. Bamboshay a lively dance. Gongolo a species of millipede.
Ganga Man a herbalist. Nana a nurse who cares for small children. Yaya a pet name given to a woman in the Virgin Islands in former times. Kunu-munu a man who has become foolish because of excessive love for a woman. Mumu a stupid person. Bamacoo a hernia.
Kallalloo a dish made of leaves, meat and fish. Ponko-lonko a term of endearment used to a small child, and of contempt used to adults. Order Now. Stay up to date with news from VInow.
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Standard American English is associated with social mobility , as it is widely used in business and professional circles. Virgin Islands Creole has different forms that vary by the age of the speaker, as many words and expressions are known only by older islanders, while there are also relatively newer words and expressions known only to younger islanders. Tourist are welcomed we give you open arms when you visit us. Imports include crude oil, food, consumer goods, and building materials. Skinsmoke talk , 7 July UTC The above discussion is preserved as an archive of a requested move. Because there are several varieties of Virgin Islands Creole, it is also colloquially known by the specific island on which it is spoken: Crucian dialect, Thomian dialect, Tortolian dialect, Saint Martin dialect, Saba dialect, Statia dialect.
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No further edits should be made to this section. So we'd have two language articles distinguished by geography rather than by language, quite an odd state of affairs. What about an article for the actual language?
That's what I thought this should be. It is common knowledge here that the creole spoken in the Netherlands Antilles have more in common with the British Virgin Islands than what the Netherlands Antilles have with the U. Virgin Islands, not what was written in Ethnologue. Also, the consensus I've found from the experts I've consulted with is that although "Netherlands Antilles Creole" is very similar to "Virgin Islands Creole," it cannot be classified as "Virgin Islands Creole," as the Netherlands Antilles are not in the Virgin Islands.
Also, I see that you are mistaken on one particular point - you seem to think is some standard Virgin Islands Creole "language" in the region, with each island having a "dialect" of said "language. Each island has their own English-based creole, which leads me to an excellent point you made about geographic vs. There is no standard "VI Creole" language with a "subcategory" of dialects. Thomas, St. Martin, Saba, and St.
With those great points you made, I suggest we create two articles - "Virgin Islands Creole", describing it as some sort of grouping terminology for the individual creoles spoken on the different Virgin Islands, while doing the same for "Netherlands Antilles Creole. I'd delete the template, but that might cause some accounting problem.
It doesn't surprise me Ethnologue got it wrong. No, I haven't been to the Islands. I'm sorry, but that's like saying that American cannot be classified as English, because the US is not in England, or Mexican cannot be classified as Spanish, because Mexico is not in Spain.
What we call a thing does not change what that thing is. I didn't think there's a standard VI creole. However, that's not what a "language" is, at least not in the linguistic sense. A language does not need a standardized form to be a language. In fact, few of the world's languages do. Each island has their own English-based creole. That would imply that each island speaks a different language, and that they can therefore not understand each other.
From a linguistic POV, there are speech communities which can understand each other, and those are together considered "languages". Within a language, there may be some communities which are divergent, but still intelligible; those are "dialects" of said language.
If VI and NA speakers understand each other, then they speak the same language, even if that language has no name. Creoles, though previously considered primitive, today don't generally get any special treatment: They're just languages, though often with a history that may shed some light on the nature of human language and language evolution, and which makes them problematic to classify.
Though VI is an English creole, and English is a Germanic language, VI is not classified as a Germanic language, because as a creole it does not have a single ancestor. If VI Creole is just a geographic grouping, then we should make clear in the article that it is not a language, not a creole, but a term of convenience.
I expect that would make for some rather contorted reading. I don't see a point to two articles for one language. They would cover the same material grammar, phonology, vocab , violating content forking. If there were enough language politics to make up two articles just on politics, as there are say at Croatian and Serbian, Urdu and Hindi, or Malay and Indonesian each pair of which are the same language , that might warrant a split, but even in such politicized cases, a split is not always warranted.
The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, for example, does not have separate articles for Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian, but lumps them together. It's the same language as VI Creole. The current title reflects the overwhelming proportion of the article's content.
If any unique information on the creoles of the Dutch Antilles surfaces, perhaps it would be better placed in its own article. I know that sounds like crystal ball gazing, but now is not a sensible time to change the title. Let's wait and see what names the languages spoken on the three islands go under in the future. Skinsmoke talk , 7 July UTC The above discussion is preserved as an archive of a requested move.
The territorial bird is the indigenous yellow breast, and the territorial flower is the yellow elder, commonly called "Ginger Thomas. Emergence of the Nation. By , the native population had been wiped out by the Spanish. Although Denmark U. Virgin Islands suppressed the slave trade in , the practice did not end until the British occupied the islands in The islands were returned to Denmark in and remained the Danish West Indies until their purchase by the United States in Originally under the control of the navy, they passed to the Department of the Interior in National Identity.
Many documents from the colonial period are in Denmark, not accessible to residents seeking to study the country's history. Since , there has been a lot of migration to and from the islands to other parts of the Caribbean and to the mainland; until recently, less than half of the population was native-born.
People emphasize the variety of cultures in the islands, and the advantage of being both "U. Ethnic Relations. The first elected black governor in the United States, Melvin Evans, took office in Relations between ethnic groups are generally good, although there has been some racial violence.
Several cultures have influenced local architecture. Wattle and daub construction, the use of cisterns to collect water, the "Big Yard" or common area, and verandas and porches can be traced to Africa. Danish culture is reflected in the design of towns, especially the "step streets"; street names; ovens and cookhouses; and red roofs. Yellow ballast brick, carried in ships from Europe, was used in construction along with locally quarried stone and coral.
Open market areas, formerly the sites of slave markets, are found in the main towns. Many urban buildings date back to the colonial period. Food in Daily Life. Cassava, pumpkins, and sweet potatoes are native to the islands, and a variety of seafood is found in the surrounding waters. Many recipes are based on African sources. Okra is an ingredient in killaloo, a stew with local greens and fish, and in fungi, a cornmeal-based side dish; conch appears in fritters, chowders, and mixed with rice.
Guava, soursop, and mango are eaten, along with mamey and mesple. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Sugar cakes made with coconut and boiled sugar, are a traditional midafternoon snack. Maubi, a local drink, is made from the bark of a tree, herbs, and yeast.
Souse is a stew of pig's head, tail, and feet, flavored with lime juice that is served on festive occasions. Basic Economy.
Per capita income is high, but the cost of living is expensive and there is constant pressure for new jobs. A major economic problem at the beginning of was the high level of governmental debt; since that time, expenditures have been cut, revenues have been increased, and fiscal stability has been restored. An increase in the tax on rum is expected to increase revenues.
The islands' lack of natural resources makes them dependent on imports for local consumption and later reexportation. The basic unit of currency is the U. Commercial Activities. The retail sector, including hotels, bars, restaurants, and jewelry stores, accounts for nearly half of the islands' revenues. The service sector is the largest employer; a small but growing area is financial services. Construction increased after the hurricanes of Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70 percent of the gross-domestic product and 70 percent of employment.
Around two million tourists visit the islands annually; two-thirds are cruiseship passengers, but air visitors account for the majority of tourism revenue. Agriculture has declined in importance. Major Industries. Manufacturing consists of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. Saint Croix has one of the world's largest oil refineries and an aluminum smelter.
The need to rebuild after hurricanes has caused an upsurge in the construction industry. Imports include crude oil, food, consumer goods, and building materials. The major source of export revenue is refined petroleum, with manufactured goods contributing a significant amount. The major trading partners are the United States and Puerto Rico. Classes and Castes. Historically, the society was divided along caste and color lines. Even after emancipation in , ex-slaves' participation in the political process was restricted and their freedom of movement and emigration were limited by legislation.
A result of Danish determination to maintain the status quo was the Fireburn of , a labor revolt on Saint Croix that destroyed many plantations. Symbols of Social Stratification. The use of Standard English characterizes the upper classes. Children often use native forms at home and speak Standard English at school. A higher percentage of males speak dialect than do females.
The use of dialect is considered an important part of the culture but an impediment to educational and economic mobility. Congress established the government through the Revised Organic Act of The Office of Insular Affairs of the U. Department of the Interior administers the islands. The governor and lieutenant governor are elected by popular vote for four-year terms.
There is a fifteen-seat Senate whose members are elected for two-year terms. The islands elect one representative to the U. House of Representatives who may vote in committees and subcommittees. Virgin Islands citizens do not vote in United States' presidential elections. The judicial branch is composed of the U.
District Court, with judges appointed by the President, and the Territorial Court, with judges appointed by the governor. Leadership and Political Officials. The current governor and the current representative to the U. House are both Democrats. In the Senate, the Democratic Party holds six seats and the Republican Party and the Independent Citizens Movement have two seats each; the remaining five seats are held by independents.
Social Problems and Control. The high cost of living and the low pay scale for service sector jobs have created widespread discontent. Saint Croix has seen drive-by shootings, but most crime is property-related. To protect tourism, the government has increased the law enforcement budget. The Department of Human Services attempts to provide for the needs of low-income persons, the elderly, children and families, and the disabled.
The Saint Croix Foundation is active in community development and has established anticrime initiatives. Environmental associations on the three main islands promote ecological awareness, sponsor guided outings, and encourage responsible legislation. Division of Labor by Gender. Women are increasing their participation in the economic and political areas.
The U. Small Business Administration established the Virgin Islands Women's Business Center in to encourage and train women business owners. The heroine of the labor rebellion in Saint Croix was "Queen Mary," a canefield worker.
The current Senate president and the presiding judge of the Territorial Court are women. One in three families is headed by a single female parent. The rate of unmarried teenage pregnancy is increasing and is a major social concern. Wedding customs range from the traditional African "jump the broom" to European-influenced church ceremonies.
Domestic Unit. According to census data, married couples comprise 57 percent of households and unmarried females with children, 34 percent.
The average household has two children. The concept of jointly owned "family land" accommodates the pattern of alternately settling down and moving that has characterized the lives of many families since colonial times.
Two million tourists visit the islands annually; two-thirds of them are cruiseship passengers. Infant Care. Women are responsible for infant care. Breast-feeding is supplemented by formula given in bottles; the use of formula results in early weaning. In more traditional households, folk beliefs about infant care, including the use of "bush tea" to induce sleep, are common. Child Rearing and Education. A "bogeyman" is used as a threat to correct children's bad behavior. Education is compulsory and free.
Multicultural education is seen as a necessity, but there is growing concern about the public schools, and those who can afford private schools generally choose that alternative. A higher percentage of females than males finish high school. Higher Education. It offers bachelor's degrees in a number of areas and master's degrees in business administration and public administration.
Politeness is considered important. Children are told to address adults as "sir" or "ma'am. Religious Beliefs. The predominant religious affiliations are Baptist 42 percent , Catholic 34 percent , and Episcopalian 17 percent. Remnants of African culture are found in the belief in spirits.
Religious Practitioners. Under Danish rule, the Lutheran church was the state church; to practice any other religion, an official permit had to be granted. Permits were granted fairly easily, and sermons were not censored. With the coming of the Americans in , the Catholic Redemptorists became the predominant religious order, and Catholicism was a major force through the s, in terms of the influence which priests wielded over parishioners.
Rituals and Holy Places. Saint Thomas has the second oldest synagogue in the New World. To commemorate their freedom in , The colonial style architecture of Charlotte Amalie, Saint Thomas. European and African cultures have influenced local architecture. The Arawak Indian carvings on Saint John may have religious significance. Alternative healing methods are widely used, such as faith healing, chiropractic, and traditional "bush" remedies based on indigenous plants.
Hamilton Jackson Day on 1 November. Carnival was officially reinstated in and is celebrated at different times. Carnival celebrations include parades, floats, stilt walking "Mocko Jumbies," steel pan competitions, beauty contests, and food fairs. Support for the Arts. A nine-member Arts Council and a thirteen-member Historic Preservation Commission are appointed by the governor.
Community arts groups exist on all three islands, with private support from a number of sources. Gimenez, and J. Antonio Jarvis have all made significant contributions. Graphic Arts. A number of contemporary artists work outside the country.
Virgin Islands Language - Virgin Islands
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Croix Heh — here St. Thomas, St. Croix Come ya — come here St. Croix Come heh — come here St. I don't have any Ine see dem Croix Geh from heh — go away St. Virgin Islands Quadrille — native dance of the Virgin Islands Bahn ya — literally "born here," a commonly used phrase in Virgin Islands society, used by some to determine whether someone is or is not a "native Virgin Islander.
Primarily used on St. Croix, its usage is not as common in recent years. Wraut up — cursed out Lyah — liar Ah good! Croix Ihs good! Thomas Foh true? You sick de man?
Chek yah — come here Watch yah! Term of endearment used before, after, or during an argument. Croix Ignohrant — one who gets "vex" quick.
Gahn een — someone who is crazy; lost their mind. Pickin Whelks — wearing pants with pant legs that are obviously too short. Disgustin — being extremely playful; harassing Mos Defenetly — that is true; in high agreement with.
Neva Dat — never, ever a instant reaction or response Nah Dat Deh — no sir Self — often used in conjunction with a pronoun, i. Like saying kick his butt Bahnah- another name for Butt or ass. The term is used as a slight originating in "garrot bird", a crow; Gyasso is from garcon a French patois speaker while local poor white French were referred to as Cha Cha folk.
Bukra — a White man. Croix Cyar — car St. Yuh — your as in "wah happen to yuh foot? Thomas Tambrahn — tamarind St. Typical greeting among islanders. Post a new comment Error Comments allowed for friends only Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal.
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