However, careers in adult education are incredibly important, as they ensure that learning and education are open to people throughout the entirety of their lives. Many people have the desire to learn new skills and acquire knowledge throughout their adult lives, either to help them progress with their current career, assist them when they want to change careers, or to allow them to learn things purely for fun and personal satisfaction. Adult education is pretty tricky to define. However, it tends to involve teaching people over the age of 18, who have left compulsory or higher education and are returning to education in order to learn new things. However, adult education can also be explored in the daytime too.
Some other educational topics they spoke about were the effects of music, poetry, and the other arts on the development of individual, role of teacher, and the relations between teacher and student. Finally, Interactil hardcore free pics psychology of cognitive development is concerned with individual differences in the organization of cognitive processes and abilities, in their rate of change, and in their mechanisms of change. Animal testing Archival research Behavior epigenetics Case Teaching mature adults educational psychology Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Psychophysics Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys. Once again, Salzberger- Wittenberg et al. For example, the grasping reflex of the infant will be applied indiscriminately to a range of objects: large, small, thick, thin, soft and hard.
Absorption of diapers. Engaging Experience and Wisdom in a Postmodern Age
Educational neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neurosciencedevelopmental cognitive neuroscienceTeaching mature adults educational psychology psychologyeducational technologyeducation theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era. Dependencies and other territories. The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. They provide nonresidential junior college courses to people living in a particular area. In recent decades, the participation of women as professional researchers in North American educational psychology has risen dramatically. The learning is experiential and utilizes background knowledge. When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Most of the Shane collins gay mentioned educational technologies promote new modalities of student-instructor and student-student interaction. An initial review of literature on adult learning in higher education settings was conducted using keywords such as adult learneradult educationand adult student, connected by Boolean operators with andragogy, higher education, college, and university.
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- Teaching adults often looks very different from teaching children.
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- The demographics of students attending institutions of higher education in the United States are changing.
- Education is the process of facilitating learning , or the acquisition of knowledge , skills , values , beliefs , and habits.
- Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.
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However, careers in adult education are incredibly important, as they ensure that learning and education are open to people throughout the entirety of their lives.
Many people have the desire to learn new skills and acquire knowledge throughout their adult lives, either to help them progress with their current career, assist them when they want to change careers, or to allow them to learn things purely for fun and personal satisfaction.
Adult education is pretty tricky to define. However, it tends to involve teaching people over the age of 18, who have left compulsory or higher education and are returning to education in order to learn new things.
However, adult education can also be explored in the daytime too. After all, this broad area of education also covers the studies of mature students and people working towards professional qualifications as part of their job, such as trainee accountants studying for their ACCA Association of Charted Certified Accountants qualifications. People who teach in this area of education might be teaching languages, art, cookery, literature, publishing, carpentry, I.
They might be lecturing within higher education institutions e. Birkbeck College, a specialist provider of evening higher education, and part of the University of London , adult community colleges, or further education colleges. Some adult education lecturers might even work for private companies that offer niche business or I. On the other hand, people who specialise in private tuition might be teaching people in the comfort of their own homes.
This area of teaching can be especially fun and rewarding, as your students are more likely to have a genuine desire to learn. However, teaching in this area is an entirely different challenge to teaching children.
You may use different teaching methods and techniques, and you will need the ability to communicate with students on a much more equal grounding. However, some people do pursue these careers full-time. Careers in adult education teaching or lecturing are not simply about turning up in the evening, chatting a little bit about a certain subject and then going home to bed.
These teachers need the right qualifications or experience, and need to do the same level of lesson planning, preparation and administrative work as other professional educators. It really depends on the kind of class and the level of education, but most adult education lecturers will be responsible for overseeing and marking standardised tests too. Consequently, they will need to produce and process all the relevant documentation and computer programmes in order to allow their students to learn in this way.
People that specialise in private tuition provide more personal and focused educational attention to individual students or small groups. They might deal with private family clients and provide school pupils with additional tuition to help them pass their exams.
Alternatively, these educators might be hired by local government or corporate clients and provide skills-based tuition to individual employees.
They might even help foreign nationals who want to improve their language skills. Private tutors can offer educational help in a wide range of subjects and at various academic levels. They tend to be self-employed or work on behalf of private tuition agencies. To work in adult education or private tuition, you might need a degree in your area of expertise, a formal education qualification e.
Check out the Lifelong Learning UK website for more details! Adult education is frequently overlooked in terms of its importance, but it is an incredibly beneficial sector, in that it allows people a second chance to gain qualifications. If you would like to make a real difference to the lives of adults, whether in public institutions or as a private educator, this could be the perfect field for you to work in.
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There is a movement for education reform , and in particular for the of evidence-based education. Surviving Your Child's Adolescence. Albertus Magnus". Teaching the person students become: New challenges in continuing adult and professional education. Individuals who complete tertiary education generally receive certificates , diplomas , or academic degrees. Hanushek and Finis Welch Eds. Journal of School Psychology , 39, —
Teaching mature adults educational psychology. Many students today appear mature but are actually missing these components.
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AACE Journal, 16 2 , Chan, B. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 49 1 , Chan, S. Applications of andragogy in multi-disciplined teaching and learning. Journal of Adult Education, 39 2 , Davis, H. Discussion as a bridge: Strategies that engage adolescent and adult learning styles in the postsecondary classroom. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13 1 , DiBiase, D. Wasted on the young? Comparing the performance and attitudes of younger and older US adults in an online class on geographic information.
Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 34 3 , Dickey, M. How youtube went from startup to the world's largest video-sharing site. Donavant, B. The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting.
Adult Education Quarterly, 59 3 , Dye, N. Exter, M. Sense of community within a fully online program. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education , 10 2 , — Falasca, M. Barriers to adult learning: Bridging the gap. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 51 3 , Feiertag, J. Training generation N: how educators should approach the net generation.
Fisher, C. Comparing student learning and satisfaction between learning environments in continuing medical education. Gandolfo, A. Brave new world? The challenge of technology to time-honored pedagogies and traditional structures. Halx, M. Re-conceptualizing college and university teaching through the lens of adult education: regarding undergraduates as adults. Teaching in Higher Education, 15 5 , Harris, D. Hemmi, A. The appropriation and repurposing of social technologies in higher education.
Journal Of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 1 , Henschke, J. Hangzhou, China: Zhejiang University Press. Considerations regarding the future of andragogy. Adult Learning, 22 1 , Hines III, M. Article of Best Practice Holton, E. Toward development of a generalized instrument to measure andragogy. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20 2 , Hoskins, B. Demand, growth, and evolution.
The Journal of Continuing Higher Education , 59 1 , Hussain, I. International Journal of Instruction , 6 1. Innes, A. Dementia studies online: Reflections on the opportunities and drawbacks of e-learning. Instructional Technology Council.
Distance education survey results. Johnson, T. Technology adoption in higher education: Overcoming anxiety through faculty bootcamp. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16 2 , Jung, I. The dimensions of e-learning quality: From the learner's perspective.
Educational Technology Research and Development , 59 4 , Keengwe, J. Laptop initiative: Impact on instructional technology integration and student learning. Education and Information Technologies , 17 2 , The use of computer tools to support meaningful learning. AACE Journal , 16 1 , Kenner, C. Adult learning theory: Applications to non-traditional college students.
Journal of College Reading and Learning, 41 2 , Kinchin, I. Avoiding technology-enhanced non-learning. Visualising knowledge structures of university teaching to relate pedagogic theory and academic practice. Groccia, M. Buskist Eds , Handbook of college and university teaching: a global perspective pp. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. In Press. Kirkwood, A.
E-Learning: You don't always get what you hope for. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18 2 , Knowles, M. The modern practice of adult education Vol.
New York: Association Press. The adult learner: A neglected species. Koehler, M. International Journal of Learning Technology, 6 2 , pp. Kooi, B. Online education and the working professional: A University's responsibility?. Kyei-Blankson, L. Faculty use and integration of technology in higher education. AACE Journal. Lei, S. Education , 4. Liaw, S. Perceived satisfaction, perceived usefulness and interactive learning environments as predictors to self-regulation in e-learning environments.
Lin, M. Students' motivation and attitudes in an online distance English course for placement year undergraduates in Taiwan Doctoral dissertation, Queen's University Belfast.
Manganello, F. PKS: An ontology-based learning construct for lifelong learners. Marschall, S. A Conceptual framework for teaching critical reading to adult college students. Adult Learning, 23 2 , Mather, J. Minter, R. The learning theory jungle. Moore, J. The Internet and Higher Education , 14 2 , Moore, K. The three-part harmony of adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making. Journal of Adult Education, 39 1 , Myers, C.
Neiderhauser, D. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34 1 , 91— Papo, W. Integration of educational media in higher education large classes. Paraskevas, A. Andragogy and the Socratic method: The adult learner perspective. Persichitte, K. Leadership for educational technology contexts in tumultuous higher education seas. Pew, S.
Andragogy and pedagogy as foundational theory for student motivation in higher education. Piaget, J. The stages of the intellectual development of the child. Educational psychology in context: Readings for future teachers , Plageman, P. Educator, planner and advocate: Higher education for adults in the new millennium. Adult Learning, 22 2 , Radford, A. Learning at a distance: Undergraduate enrollment in distance education courses and degree programs.
Redmond, P. From face-to-face teaching to online teaching: Pedagogical transitions. Renes, S. Using technology to enhance higher education.
Innovative Higher Education , 36 3 , Rodrigues, K. It does matter how we teach math. Journal of Adult Education, 41 1 , Rosenbaum, P. The University of Bergen. Ross-Gordon, J. Research on adult learners: Supporting the needs of a student population that is no longer nontraditional.
Peer Review, 13 1 , Rutherford, C. Using online social media to support preservice student engagement. Samaroo, S. Scanlon, L. Identifying supporters and distracters in the segmented world of the adult learner. Studies in Continuing Education, 31 1 , Snyder, T.
Digest of education statistics National Center for Education Statistics. Strong, R. Agricultural extension agents' perceptions of effective teaching strategies for adult learners in the master beef producer program.
Journal of Extension, 48 3 , Taylor, B. Andragogy's transition into the future: Meta-analysis of andragogy and its search for a measurable instrument. Journal of Adult Education, 38 1 , A single conversation with a wise man is better than ten years of study: A model for testing methodologies for pedagogy or andragogy. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9 2 , The purpose of education in a given time and place affects who is taught, what is taught, and how the education system behaves.
For example, in the 21st century, many countries treat education as a positional good. In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university.
As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course , referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university — or via some other such method.
Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences , mathematics , computer science , social sciences , humanities and applied sciences.
Instruction is the facilitation of another's learning. Instructors in primary and secondary institutions are often called teachers , and they direct the education of students and might draw on many subjects like reading , writing , mathematics , science and history. Instructors in post-secondary institutions might be called teachers , instructors, or professors , depending on the type of institution; and they primarily teach only their specific discipline.
Studies [ which? It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth. However, technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation. Therefore, a country's ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of " human capital ".
Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions  and the role of cognitive skills. At the level of the individual, there is a large literature, generally related to the work of Jacob Mincer ,  on how earnings are related to the schooling and other human capital.
This work has motivated many studies, but is also controversial. The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling. Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis argued in that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production.
Many countries are now drastically changing the way they educate their citizens. The world is changing at an ever quickening rate, which means that a lot of knowledge becomes obsolete and inaccurate more quickly. The emphasis is therefore shifting to teaching the skills of learning: to picking up new knowledge quickly and in as agile a way as possible. Finnish schools have even begun to move away from the regular subject-focused curricula, introducing instead developments like phenomenon-based learning, where students study concepts like climate change instead.
Education is also becoming a commodity no longer reserved for children. Adults need it too. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Teaching. For other uses, see Education disambiguation. Learning in which knowledge and skills is transferred through teaching.
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Democracy and Education. The Free Press. Retrieved on His Sound Bites Hold Up". Retrieved 6 October New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16 July Albertus Magnus". Archived from the original on 15 October Athens: Ohio University Press.
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Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original PDF on 27 August Current Biology. Bibcode : CBio Philosophy of Education. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. In Guthrie, James W. Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd edition. Penguin UK. The emancipated citizens who emerged from every level of Humboldt's educational system were expected to take an active part in the political life of the Prussian state. Plough Quarterly. London:Routledge, March Research in Social Stratification and Mobility.
Archived from the original on 21 August September Archived from the original PDF on 27 September Hanushek Economic outcomes and school quality. International Institute for Educational Planning. Robinson American Economic Review. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann Journal of Economic Literature. Archived from the original PDF on 5 January Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. Heckman, Lance J. Lochner, and Petra E. Hanushek and Finis Welch Eds.
Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. Yale School of Management. Haymarket Books. Education at Wikipedia's sister projects. Early childhood education Primary education Secondary education Tertiary education. Alternative education Homeschooling Adult education Portal. Education in Africa. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland. Education in Asia. Book Category Asia portal. Education in Europe. European Union. Education in North America.
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Psychology and Adult Learning 3rd edition Mark Tennant. Ana Novianti. It Psychology and explores the seminal traditions of key psychological theories, and discusses issues and problems in applying them to an understanding of adult learning and development.
This new edition is thoroughly revised and updated in light Adult Learning of the impact of globalising processes and the application of new information technologies, and the influence of postmodernism on psychology. It examines the formation of identities, and places increased emphasis on what it means to be a lifelong learner. Considering adult learning in a variety of contexts, topics covered include: — Theories of the self — Self-directed learning — The formation of identities — Development of intelligence — Group dynamics — Transformative learning Psychology and Adult Learning is essential reading for Mark Tennant those who seek a critical account of how psychology informs contemporary adult education theory and practice.
It explores the seminal traditions of key psychological theories, and discusses issues and problems in applying them to an understanding of adult learning and development. This new edition is thoroughly revised and updated in light of the impact of globalising processes and the application of new information technologies, and the influence of postmodernism on psychology.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
In a similar manner this new edition attempts to pick up shifts in contemporary society and academic thinking, at least in so far as they are pertinent to the purpose of the book. Three such shifts have been identified. First, structural changes in society resulting from globalizing processes and the application of new information technologies have been expressed in the pervasiveness of risk, change and uncertainty; and the experience and prevalence of disruptions and discontinuities in life trajectories.
Much of this book is about the formation of identities and their connection to learning and pedagogy. Second, the resurgence of lifelong learning, although it is normally associated with policy frameworks and instruments designed to reform national education and training systems, also foregrounds pedagogy and learning.
In spite of any misgivings voiced about the state of adult education theory, and psychology as a foundation discipline within it, adult education as an activity is arguably becoming more urgent and central.
This is particularly so given that demarcations between formal and nonformal educational institutions are breaking down, new interdisciplinary groupings are being formed which challenge the old disciplines, and formal educational institutions no longer enjoy a monopoly on either pedagogical expertise or the creation of knowledge. Adult education is beginning to fill some of the spaces created by the fragmentation of the old educational systems.
Preface ix In this context I believe it makes sense to continue the project of linking psychology to issues and practices in adult education.
But not for the purpose of psychologizing the process of adult learning and certainly not to resurrect a monolithic and singular theory of adult learning. Rather, the purpose is to acknowledge the psychological dimension of adult education work, and to explore this dimension in the context of the concerns of adult educators, and global social and economic conditions.
It is a book about psychology and adult learning as opposed to being a book about the psychology of adult learning. The reader who wants a comprehensive account of psychology and its application to adult learning should look elsewhere.
Similarly, the reader who wants an exhaustive treatment of any particular theory will not find it here. My approach has been to examine the seminal traditions of some key psychological theories and to discuss the issues and problems in applying them to an understanding of adult learning and development. I hope it will be useful for those who seek a critical understanding of psychological theory and research from the perspective of the adult educator.
Many of the ideas grew out of lectures and seminars delivered to graduate students in the adult education programme at the University of Technology, Sydney.
These students were enrolled in one of a number of courses leading to an award in adult education. They comprised community educators, industrial and commercial trainers, Aboriginal educators, ESOL teachers, literacy teachers, outreach workers, health education officers and so on.
They were all practising adult educators who had completed undergraduate studies in psychology or a related discipline. This is the readership for whom the book will be most accessible — the graduate student who has a knowledge of psychology, and work experience with adults engaged in education.
I should like to express my gratitude to the following colleagues and friends who have made direct and indirect contributions to the book: Susan Roberts, who read the draft and made many valuable suggestions; Chris Duke, who was my host at the University of Warwick during the writing of the first edition; John Martin, who was a valuable mentor during my days at Macquarie University, my colleagues in the adult education programme at the University of Technology, Sydney; Professor Ogasawara and his colleagues for kindly inviting me to Hokkaido University during which time the second edition was written, and Peter Jarvis, who stimulated me to write the book and provided valuable editorial guidance.
Chickering ed. Jaques In addition I would like to acknowledge that parts of chapters 1, 2, 4 and 9 have appeared previously in M. Chappell, C. Rhodes, N. Solomon, M. Tennant and L. Parts of Chapter 4 have appeared in M. Wilson and E.
Also parts of Chapter 5 have appeared in M. Boud, and J. I would also like to thank my immediate family: Susan, Annie and Erin. The first type seeks to provide a balanced overview of psychological, sociological and philosophical theory and research together with an assessment of its relevance to adult education e.
The emphasis is generally pragmatic; a description of various aspects of psychology is developed into an eclectic understanding of how adults best learn, this may be followed by a tentative list of principles to be adopted or procedures to be employed when teaching adults. There will usually be some comments about the conceptual ambiguities of a theory or the difficulties in verifying a particular research finding, but these are often parenthetical comments, set aside from the thrust of the text.
A second type of approach to understanding adult learning is one which has a clearly articulated thesis and which uses the literature to support the thesis being proposed e.
Knowles, , ; Tough, , ; Mezirow, ; Illeris, Typically there is an attempt to identify and draw upon a selected set of psychological, sociological and philosophical concepts and principles and thereby develop a programmatic and sometimes prescriptive statement about adult teaching and learning. With respect to the psychological dimension which is the principal concern of this book , neither of the above approaches leads to a critical understanding of the theories in question.
Nevertheless, failure to do so will mean that psychology will continue to be used in an uncritical way to support the normative rhetoric of adult education. A third approach takes as its point of departure a critical analysis of theory and research in adult education and develops from this a view about adult teaching and learning e. Griffin, ; Hart, a, b; Collins, ; Brookfield, To date, instances of this type have typically drawn upon a range of disci- plines, such as sociology, history, educational theory and, of course, psychology.
As such psychology will need to ally itself once again with the interpretive disciplines in the humanities and the social sciences such as philosophy, history, linguistics, sociology and anthropology. It seeks out the rules that human beings bring to bear in creating meanings in cultural contexts.
It is this view of psychology that I believe can appropriately inform adult education practice. As foregrounded in the Preface, one aim of this book is to pick up shifts in contemporary society and academic thinking in so far as they are relevant to psychology and adult learning. But what has this to do with adult learning? Edwards et al. Many such characterizations incorporate a view that contemporary change processes require greater reflexivity by individuals, organizations, and societies and that this is achieved through learning.
Each theory or body of research is treated independently, in a separate chapter, using two guiding principles. As far as possible I have limited this process to those aspects of each theory which are pertinent to the issues and concerns of adult educators. Second, there is an emphasis on understanding psychological development throughout the lifespan.
Moreover, it implies that development and change is a feature of adult life and that education has a continuing role to play in the lives of all adults. In summary these are: 1 Theoretical critique where conceptual weaknesses and internal contradictions within the theory are identified.
An exhaustive critical analysis of a given theory would require all four levels of critique. However, in this book there is a mix of levels both within and between the chapters. The aim is not to be exhaustive, but to be selective and for each chapter to apply only that level of critique which is relevant to adult teaching and learning.
This theme concerns the nature of the relationship between the person and the social environment. It is useful to think of the various psychological theories addressed in the texts deriving from one of two broad perspectives: these depend on whether they take the person or the social environment as their point of departure.
Those theories which emphasize the primacy of the person have a tendency to explain learning and development in terms of the internal make-up of the person. This assumption implies that the person has an integrity or autonomous dynamic which makes it largely independent of the social environment.
In contrast, theories which emphasize the primacy of the social environment have a tendency to explain learning and development in terms of the external forces impinging on the person. This of course is an over-simplification and most theories admit both internal and external influences on learning and development. Within the person perspective there is a tradition of research which focuses on emotional development. In this tradition, the emphasis is on how our concept of self, and the conflicts within it, emerges and develops as we proceed through the life course.
The groundwork in this tradition can be traced to the humanistic psychology of Rogers and Maslow Chapter 2 , or to the psychoanalytic theory of Freud and its subsequent developments Chapter 3.
Many of the later theories of adult psychological development borrow from both the psychoanalytic and humanistic traditions e. Adult educators have shown considerable interest in this research e. One area in this research attempts to explain the processes through which, in the course of our development, we attain an understanding of the world.
The principal theorists and researchers in this area have been influenced by the seminal work of Piaget in the domain of cognitive development, and Kohlberg in the domain of moral development. They have in common the mission of describing and explaining the sequence of stages which mark our progressive understanding of abstract concepts and moral regulations. Other research efforts have focused on mapping individual differences in cognitive styles Chapter 6.
One class of approaches postulates a mechanistic relationship between the person and the social forces acting on it. On this account the person is a passive receiver of behaviours, roles, attitudes and values which are shaped and maintained by the social environment through rewards and sanctions.
His theory has had an impact on teaching and learning in all sectors of education. This mechanistic approach is also apparent in some of the descriptive research on adult life phases e. Chickering and Havighurst, Learning and development are thus seen as proceeding through a constant inter- action between the developing person and the social environment, both of which are active in this process — this is why it is referred to as a dialectical process.
In adult education this general approach is recognizable in the writings of Freire, Lovett, Griffin, Brookfield, Mezirow and others who draw attention to the working of social processes in shaping individual identity and the need for adult learners to resist forms of enculturation which are alienating and oppressive Chapter 9. Under the broad banner of postmodernism they argue that the privileging of one term over the other is part of the problem.
The above distinctions are useful as a framework for locating different psy- chological theories — but they are more than this.
In everyday life people adopt strong views on the relationship between person and society, and those views influence their perception of political, economic and moral issues. Let me illustrate this with some examples of an extreme person perspective, which is commonly manifested in the way people attribute to individuals the responsibility for events and actions which are more properly considered social phenomena.