Essex , American whaling ship that was rammed by a sperm whale on November 20, , and later sank. Although all 20 crewmen initially survived, only 8 were rescued following an arduous journey that devolved into cannibalism. The Essex was reportedly built in Amesbury , Massachusetts. The three-masted ship was made from white oak , especially known for its strength, and it measured 87 feet In the Essex was launched, and it was believed to have been used as a merchant ship before being converted into a whaling vessel.
Whaling was once conducted around the world by seafaring nations in pursuit of the giant animals that seemed as limitless as the oceans in which they swam. Thomas died on January 20, and the others decided they had no choice but to keep the body for food. After a full day of sailing, the fire was still visible on the horizon. Although all 20 crewmen initially survived, only 8 were Mature professionals following an arduous journey that devolved into cannibalism. I could distinctly see him smite his jaws together as if distracted with rage and fury. Captain George Pollard Jr. Pollard and Ramsdell by that time were so completely Sandi whale essex they did not even notice the Dauphin alongside them and became terrified when they saw their rescuers. The men suffered severe Sandi whale essex, starvation, and exposure on the open ocean, and the survivors eventually resorted to eating the bodies of the crewmen who had died.
Model airplane simulator demo. Final voyage and whale attack
After reading this short report of the true events that inspired Melville to write Moby Dick, there seems to be no reason not to read the great Sandi whale essex itself. Hidden categories: CS1: Julian—Gregorian uncertainty Articles needing additional references from November All Sandi whale essex needing additional references Pages using deprecated image syntax All articles that may have off-topic sections Sandi whale essex articles that may have off-topic sections from April Articles with LibriVox links Coordinates on Wikidata. Obed Hendricks' boat, carrying crew members William Bond and Joseph West, exhausted its food supplies on January 14, and Pollard generously offered to share his own boat's remaining provisions. For the remainder of their journey, Pollard and Ramsdell survived by gnawing on the bones of Coffin and Ray. All three men are presumed to have died at sea. Refresh and try again. It lay motionless on the surface facing the ship and then began to swim towards the vessel, picking up speed by shallow diving. The survivors walked alone to their homes without a word being spoken. As the boat began to sink, her crew essfx thirty had time only Sandi whale essex wgale some bread and water before pulling away in three frail open boats. A true story that you will long remember! Herman Melville drew inspiration for Moby-Dick from the whale attack on the Essex. To Bennet, the tale was like a confession. The men drew lots to determine who would be sacrificed for the survival of the crew. Video of gianna from milf hunter Read Edit View history.
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- Essex was an American whaler from Nantucket , Massachusetts , which was launched in
- Like a tourist, Melville met local dignitaries, dined out and took in the sights of the village he had previously only imagined.
- Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read.
- Owen Chase October 7, — March 7, was first mate of the whaler Essex , which a sperm whale rammed and sank on 20 November
- On 20 November, The Essex sighted a school of whales, and all three boats set off in pursuit.
Essex , American whaling ship that was rammed by a sperm whale on November 20, , and later sank. Although all 20 crewmen initially survived, only 8 were rescued following an arduous journey that devolved into cannibalism.
The Essex was reportedly built in Amesbury , Massachusetts. The three-masted ship was made from white oak , especially known for its strength, and it measured 87 feet In the Essex was launched, and it was believed to have been used as a merchant ship before being converted into a whaling vessel. It was based in Nantucket , considered the whaling capital of the United States. In the early 19th century, whaling was an extremely difficult profession.
After spotting the animal, whaleboats —measuring some 25 feet 7. After being maneuvered within feet of the giant mammal, a harpoon connected to a rope was thrown, tethering the small vessel to the whale. After the animal became tired, the sailors would kill it with a lance and then tow it to the main vessel, where it was harvested for blubber and oil.
Despite the dangers of the trade, the Essex became known as a lucky vessel. On August 12, , the Essex set sail on its fateful last journey, heading from Nantucket to the South Pacific Ocean. There were 21 men on board—including the first-time captain, George Pollard, Jr. On August 14, however, the voyage nearly ended when the ship was briefly knocked onto its side by a squall and almost sunk.
With the Essex damaged and missing two whaleboats, Pollard initially opted to return to Nantucket. However, First Mate Owen Chase—possibly worried that the men, believing the knockdown was a bad omen, might desert—convinced him to continue. Since departing Nantucket, the crew had been searching for sperm whales. However, it was not until some two months into the voyage, when the Essex was south of Rio de Janeiro , that the first whale was sighted.
Shortly thereafter, the men killed their first quarry. The hunting continued to prove largely disappointing until the ship reached the waters off Peru , where it took more than 10 whales. In about late May, Pollard decided to head farther from the coast, into a distant area that had recently proved highly profitable for whalers. In preparation, the Essex stopped at Atacames, Ecuador , in September , and while there one of the crewmen deserted.
Although shorthanded, the ship sailed on, stopping at Hood Island , Galapagos , where they fixed a leak on the Essex and caught nearly tortoises. In late October they reached Charles Island and collected more tortoises before one of the crew members started a fire that soon spread throughout the small island, causing the men to flee.
The Essex resumed its journey, and on November 20, , it was more than 1, nautical miles 2, km from the Galapagos. That day whales were spotted, and three whaleboats were launched. The vessel commanded by Chase was damaged, however, and was forced to return to the Essex. While repairs were being made, a huge male sperm whale was spotted close to the ship.
It was estimated to be 85 feet 26 metres long; a typical male sperm whale was no bigger than 65 feet 20 metres. Under this theory, the agitated animal believed that the boat was actually another male that had entered his territory.
Whatever its reason, the whale began speeding toward the Essex , ramming the port left side. After passing under the ship, the animal resurfaced and appeared stunned. The other whaleboats returned to find that the Essex had capsized. Realizing that the ship was doomed, Pollard believed they should head for either the Marquesas or Society islands, more than 1, miles 2, km or 2, miles 3, km away, respectively.
Not only were they the closest land, the crew would be sailing with the wind. Instead, they argued for Peru or Chile, even though much of the course—which measured more than 4, miles 7, km —would be against both the wind and strong currents. Pollard ultimately relented, and on November 22 the men left the barely afloat Essex. The three whaleboats, which had been outfitted with makeshift sails and given two months of provisions, were each commanded by one of the officers: Pollard, Chase, and Joy.
On December 20, after having traveled some 1, miles 2, km , they arrived at what they thought was Ducie Island it was actually nearby Henderson , one of the Pitcairn Islands. However, although they found freshwater, there was little food. Realizing they would need to continue sailing, the crew returned to their navigation charts and determined that while Chile was 3, miles 5, km away, Easter Island was less than 1, miles 1, km.
Even though the island was unknown to them, the desperate men set a course for it, and on December 27 they left Henderson, though three sailors decided to remain behind. On January 10, , Joy became the first sailor to die, and he was buried at sea; his boat then fell under the command of Obed Hendricks. Some three weeks later, another sailor in that boat died, and the decision was made to cannibalize his body.
The other whaleboats fared worse. On January 28 Pollard lost his first man, who was cannibalized. The two vessels were then separated the following day, and the boat carrying Hendricks and two others—none of whom had navigational equipment—was never seen again; a whaleboat with three skeletons was later found on Ducie Island, though it was never determined if they were from the Essex. Although Pollard offered to take his place, the teenager refused.
He was shot on February 6. Five days later another crew member died, and he was also cannibalized. The two remaining men were rescued by the Dauphin , an American whaling ship, on February After being told of the men on Ducie, the Australian ship Surry was dispatched to the island.
Upon finding no one there, the Surry headed to Henderson Island, and on April 9, , it rescued the remaining survivors. In addition, Thomas Nickerson, a cabin boy on the Essex , later wrote his account of the sinking and rescue, but the notebook was lost and not published until Other books and later films were also based on the doomed whaleship. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
Written By: Amy Tikkanen. See Article History. Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Whaling , the hunting of whales for food and oil. Whaling was once conducted around the world by seafaring nations in pursuit of the giant animals that seemed as limitless as the oceans in which they swam.
However, since the midth century, when whale populations began to drop catastrophically, whaling has…. Sperm whale , Physeter catodon , the largest of the toothed whales, easily recognized by its enormous square head and narrow lower jaw. The sperm whale is dark blue-gray or brownish, with white patches on the belly.
It is thickset and has small paddlelike flippers and a series of…. Cannibalism , eating of human flesh by humans. A widespread custom going back into early human history, cannibalism has been found among peoples…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
Lots were drawn again to determine who would be Coffin's executioner. Jan 16, Everett Darling rated it it was amazing Shelves: They were rescued, but that wasn't known until after the book was published. Anyone have a clue? The foot-long ship was hit by a squall that destroyed its topgallant sail and nearly sank it.
Sandi whale essex. The mystery of Mocha Dick
Essex | History, Whale Attack, Survivors, & Rescue | disneytattooguy.com
Essex was an American whaler from Nantucket , Massachusetts , which was launched in Stranded thousands of miles from the coast of South America with little food and water, the man crew was forced to make for land in the ship's surviving whaleboats.
The men suffered severe dehydration, starvation, and exposure on the open ocean, and the survivors eventually resorted to eating the bodies of the crewmen who had died.
When that proved insufficient, members of the crew drew lots to determine whom they would sacrifice so that the others could live. A total of seven crew members were cannibalized before the last of the eight survivors were rescued, more than three months after the sinking of the Essex. First mate Owen Chase and cabin boy Thomas Nickerson later wrote accounts of the ordeal. The tragedy attracted international attention, and inspired Herman Melville to write his famous novel Moby-Dick.
By the time of her fateful voyage, Essex was already an old ship, but because so many of her previous voyages had been profitable, she had gained a reputation as a "lucky" vessel.
Captain George Pollard Jr. In , at the age of 29, Pollard was one of the youngest men ever to command a whaling ship; Chase was 23, and the youngest member of the crew was the cabin boy, Thomas Nickerson , who was In addition, she had a spare whaleboat below decks. Essex departed from Nantucket on August 12, , on what was expected to be a roughly two-and-a-half-year voyage to the bountiful whaling grounds off the west coast of South America. The crew numbered 21 men in total.
Two days after leaving Nantucket, a sudden squall hit Essex in the Gulf Stream and knocked her on her beam-ends, nearly sinking her. She lost her topgallant sail and two whaleboats were destroyed, with an additional whaleboat damaged.
Despite this, Captain Pollard elected to continue the voyage without replacing the two boats or repairing the damage. Essex rounded Cape Horn in January after a five-week transit, which was extremely slow.
Combined with the unsettling earlier incident, the crew began to talk of ill omens. Their spirits were temporarily lifted when Essex began the long spring and summer hunt in the warm waters of the South Pacific Ocean , traveling north along the western coast of South America up to the Spanish-ruled Royal Audience of Quito present-day Ecuador.
While sailors fled whaling ships all the time,  this event was bad news for Capt Pollard since each whaling boat required a crew of six, and so only two men remained to keep the Essex while a whale-hunt was in progress.
Two men was not sufficient to safely handle a ship of Essex' size and type. The crew was divided into three groups of six, each of which would man one of the three usable whaleboats whenever whales were sighted; the remaining two men would stay aboard and manage the Essex.
Each whaleboat was led by one of the three officers — Pollard, Chase, and Joy — who then chose his remaining five crew members each. This was an immense distance from known shores for the whalers, and the crew had heard rumors that cannibals populated the many islands of the South Pacific. Then they sailed for Charles Island, where on October 22 they took another 60 tortoises. The sailors captured them alive and allowed some of them to roam the ship at will; the rest they kept in the hold.
They believed the tortoises were capable of living for a year without eating or drinking water though in fact the tortoises slowly starved.
The sailors considered the tortoises delicious and extremely nutritious, planning to butcher them at sea as needed. While hunting on Charles Island, helmsman Thomas Chappel decided to set a fire as a prank. It was the height of the dry season, and the fire quickly burned out of control, surrounding the hunters and forcing them to run through the flames to escape.
By the time the men returned to Essex , almost the entire island was burning. The crew was upset about the fire, and Captain Pollard swore vengeance on whoever had set it. The next day, the island was still burning as the ship sailed for the offshore grounds.
After a full day of sailing, the fire was still visible on the horizon. Fearing a certain whipping, Chappel only later admitted that he had set the fire. Many years later, Nickerson returned to Charles Island and found a blackened wasteland; he observed "neither trees, shrubbery, nor grass have since appeared". It has been suggested that the fire contributed to the extinction of the Floreana Island tortoise and the near-extinction of the Floreana mockingbird , which no longer inhabit the island.
When Essex finally reached the promised fishing grounds thousands of miles west of the coast of South America, the crew was unable to find any whales for days. Tension mounted among the officers of Essex , especially between Pollard and Chase. When they finally found a whale on November 16, it surfaced directly beneath Chase's boat, with the result that the boat was "dashed At eight in the morning of November 20, , the lookout sighted spouts, and the three remaining whaleboats set out to pursue a pod of sperm whales.
It lay motionless on the surface facing the ship and then began to swim towards the vessel, picking up speed by shallow diving. The whale rammed Essex , rocking her from side to side, and then dived under her, surfacing close on the ship's starboard side. As its head lay alongside the bow and the tail by the stern, it was motionless and appeared to be stunned.
Chase prepared to harpoon it from the deck when he realized that its tail was only inches from the rudder , which the whale could easily destroy if provoked by an attempt to kill it. Fearing to leave the ship stuck thousands of miles from land with no way to steer it, Chase hesitated. The whale recovered, swam several hundred yards forward of the ship, and turned to face the ship's bow.
The surf flew in all directions about him with the continual violent thrashing of his tail. His head about half out of the water, and in that way he came upon us, and again struck the ship.
The whale crushed the bow, driving the vessel backwards, and then finally disengaged its head from the shattered timbers and swam off, never to be seen again, leaving Essex quickly going down by the bow. Chase and the remaining sailors frantically tried to add rigging to the only remaining whaleboat, while the steward William Bond ran below to gather the captain's sea chest and whatever navigational aids he could find.
The captain's boat was the first that reached us. He stopped about a boat's length off, but had no power to utter a single syllable; he was so completely overpowered with the spectacle before him. He was in a short time, however, enabled to address the inquiry to me, "My God, Mr.
Chase, what is the matter? After spending two days salvaging what supplies they could from the waterlogged wreck, the 20 sailors prepared to set out in the three small whaleboats , aware that they had wholly inadequate supplies of food and fresh water for a journey to land. The boats were rigged with makeshift masts and sails taken from the Essex , and boards were added to heighten the gunwales and prevent large waves from spilling over the sides. Inside Pollard's sea chest, which Bond's quick thinking had managed to save, were two sets of navigational equipment and two copies of maritime charts.
These were split between Pollard's and Chase's boats; Joy's boat was left without any means of navigating except to keep within sight of the other boats. Even with the knowledge that this route would require them to travel twice as far as the route to the Marquesas, Pollard conceded to the crew's decision and the boats set their course due south. Food and water were rationed from the beginning, but most of the food had been soaked in seawater.
The men ate this food first despite it increasing their thirst. It took them around two weeks to consume the contaminated food, and by this time the survivors were rinsing their mouths with seawater and drinking their own urine. Never designed for long voyages, all the whaleboats had been very roughly repaired, and leaks were a constant and serious problem during the voyage. After losing a timber, the crew of one boat had to lean to one side to raise the other side out of the water until another boat was able to draw close, allowing a sailor to nail a piece of wood over the hole.
Storms and rough seas frequently plagued the tiny whaleboats, and the men who were not occupied with steering and trimming the sails spent most of their time bailing water from the bilge.
On December 20, exactly one month after the whale attack, and within hours of the crew beginning to die of thirst, the boats landed on uninhabited Henderson Island , a small uplifted coral atoll within the modern-day British territory of the Pitcairn Islands. On Henderson Island, Essex ' s crew found a small freshwater spring below the tideline and the starving men gorged themselves on endemic birds, crabs, eggs, and peppergrass.
After just one week, however, they had largely exhausted the island's food resources. On 26 December, they concluded they would starve if they remained much longer. As most of the crew prepared to set sail in the whaleboats once again, three men — William Wright, Seth Weeks, and Thomas Chappel, the only white members of the crew who were not natives of Nantucket — opted to stay behind on Henderson.
The remaining Essex crewmen, now numbering 17 in three boats, resumed the journey on December 27 with the intention of reaching Easter Island. Within three days they had exhausted the crabs and birds they had stockpiled from Henderson in preparation for the voyage, leaving only a small reserve of the bread previously salvaged from Essex. One by one, the men began to die. Second mate Matthew Joy, whose health had been poor even before the Essex left Nantucket, was dying; as his condition steadily worsened, Joy asked if he could rest on Pollard's boat until his death.
Joy became the first crew member to die on January Nantucketer Obed Hendricks subsequently assumed the leadership of Joy's boat. The following day, Chase's whaleboat, which also carried Richard Peterson, Isaac Cole, Benjamin Lawrence, and Thomas Nickerson, became separated from the others during a squall.
Peterson died on January 18 and, like Joy, was sewn into his clothes and buried at sea, as was the custom. On February 8 Cole died, but with food running out the survivors kept his body and, after a discussion, the men resorted to cannibalism. Obed Hendricks' boat, carrying crew members William Bond and Joseph West, exhausted its food supplies on January 14, and Pollard generously offered to share his own boat's remaining provisions.
They ran out of food on January Thomas died on January 20, and the others decided they had no choice but to keep the body for food. Later that day, the two boats separated; Hendricks' boat was never seen again. All three men are presumed to have died at sea. A whaleboat was later found washed up on Ducie Island with the skeletons of three people inside. By February 1, the food on Pollard's boat was again exhausted and the survivors' situation became dire. The men drew lots to determine who would be sacrificed for the survival of the remainder.
A young man named Owen Coffin , Captain Pollard's year-old first cousin, whom he had sworn to protect, drew the black spot.
Pollard allegedly offered to protect his cousin, but Coffin is said to have replied: "No, I like my lot as well as any other". Lots were drawn again to determine who would be Coffin's executioner. His young friend, Charles Ramsdell, drew the black spot. On February 11, Ray also died.
For the remainder of their journey, Pollard and Ramsdell survived by gnawing on Coffin's and Ray's bones. By February 15, the three survivors of Chase's whaleboat had again run out of food. Several days after the rescue, the empty whaleboat was lost in a storm while under tow behind the Indian.
Pollard's boat, now containing only Pollard and Ramsdell, was rescued when almost within sight of the South American coast by the Nantucket whaleship Dauphin on February 23, 93 days after Essex sank. Pollard and Ramsdell by that time were so completely dissociative they did not even notice the Dauphin alongside them and became terrified when they saw their rescuers.
After officials were informed that three Essex survivors Wright, Weeks, and Chappel had been left behind on Ducie Island actually Henderson Island , the authorities asked the merchant vessel Surry , which already intended to sail across the Pacific, to look for the men.