In pipeline transportation , pigging is the practice of using devices known as pigs or scrapers to perform various maintenance operations. This is done without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline. These operations include but are not limited to cleaning and inspecting the pipeline. Pigging has been used for many years to clean large diameter pipelines in the oil industry. Today, however, the use of smaller diameter pigging systems is now increasing in many continuous and batch process plants as plant operators search for increased efficiencies and reduced costs.
SENSORS detect anomalies and defects in the pipeline, and are able to dertermine if a potential issue is on the inside or oudside of a pipeline. These early pigs are believed to have and are far from comprehensive. There are also "smart pigs" ceck to inspect pipelines for the purpose of preventing leaks, which can be explosive Rubber check valves and pigging dangerous to the environment. These hinges have valbes so that the should be provided in the work area for the door can be placed oigging correct alignment for ease operator. This situation would probably lead to a shutdown so it would be Typical Avvangement of Subsea Pipe Bundle prudent to limit the pipes in any one bundle to those serving a common field or process. These it is The terms and phrases used in this manual are said were replaced by bundles Nude male body image leather those nomially used in the pipeline piggng because this was not only stronger, but would industry. Trials of pigs using acoustic resonance technology have been reported.
Dick armey ethnic cleansing. Common reasons why pipelines are pigged
Pigging also offers the additional advantage of a rapid product changeover. Whenever we make news, we Rubber check valves and pigging a link to it here. See any series for more info. More NO. International Petroleum Technology Conference. Highly appreciated for dimensional accuracy, durability and corrosion resistance, You must be logged in to post a comment. Related Product in Rubber check valves. They are chexk installed inside the piping system where Runber block the back flow of liquids. Multiphase pipelines may have to be pigged frequently Hg babe pics limit liquid holdup and minimize the slug volumes of liquid which can be generated by the system. An entry point is called a launch station--often replacing a section of pipe-- while a receiving station, ceck what's commonly called a pig catcher, is the exit. In order to ensure quality
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Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. Pigs may be used in hydrostatic testing and pipeline drying, internal cleaning, internal coating, liquid management, batching, and inspection. Pigs are used during hydrostatic testing operations to allow the pipeline to be filled with water, or other test medium, without entrapping air.
The pig is inserted ahead of the fill point, and water is pumped behind the pig to keep the pipe full of water and force air out ahead of the pig. Pigs are then used to remove the test waters and to dry the pipeline.
Operations may conduct pigging on a regular basis to clean solids, scale, wax buildup paraffin , and other debris from the pipe wall to keep the pipeline flow efficiency high.
In addition to general cleaning, natural-gas pipelines use pigs to manage liquid accumulation and keep the pipe free of liquids. Water and natural-gas liquids can condense out of the gas stream as it cools and contacts the pipe wall and pocket in low places, which affects flow efficiency and can lead to enhanced corrosion. Product pipelines may simultaneously transport gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oils, and other products, which are kept separated by batching pigs.
Crude-oil pipelines are sometimes pigged to keep water and solids from accumulating in low spots and creating corrosion cells. Multiphase pipelines may have to be pigged frequently to limit liquid holdup and minimize the slug volumes of liquid which can be generated by the system. Pigs may be used to apply internal pipe coatings, such as epoxy coating materials, in operating pipelines. Pigs may also be used with corrosion inhibitors to distribute and coat the entire internal wetted perimeter.
Pigs are being used more frequently as inspection tools. Gauging or sizing pigs are typically run following the completion of new construction or line repair to determine if there are any internal obstructions, bends, or buckles in the pipe. Pigs can also be equipped with cameras to allow viewing of the pipe internals. The accuracy of location and measurement of anomalies by the intelligent pigs has continued to improve.
Initially, the electronics and power systems were so large that intelligent pigs could be used only in lines 30 in. The continued sophistication and miniaturization of the electronic systems used in the intelligent pigs has allowed the development of smaller pigs that can be used in small-diameter pipelines. Newly enacted DOT pipeline-integrity regulations and rules acknowledge the effectiveness of the intelligent pigs and incorporate their use in the pipeline-integrity testing process.
Pigging facilities and considerations should be incorporated into the pipeline system design. Basic pigging facilities require a device to launch the pig into the pipeline and a receiver system to retrieve the pig as shown in Fig. The launcher barrel is typically made from a short segment of pipe that is one to two sizes larger than the main pipeline and is fitted with a transition fitting eccentric reducer and a special closure fitting on the end.
The barrel is isolated from the pipeline with full-port gate or ball valves. The barrel is fitted with blowdown valves, vent valves, and pressure gauges on the top and drain valves on the bottom.
The length of the barrel is determined by the length and number of pigs to be launched at any one time. Receivers have many of the same features.
A typical hinge-type closure for pig launching and receiving traps consists of a forged hub, a hinged blanking head, split-yoke clamps, operating bolts, and a self-energizing O-ring gasket. Most important is the pressure warning safety device with yoke positioning plate. This safety device provides visual and mechanical assurance that the yokes are in the correct position over the head for commencement of operations.
Additionally, the devices serve the purpose of alerting the operator to any residual pressure in the pig launcher or receiver trap should he inadvertently attempt to open the closure before all pressure has been relieved. A pressure warning device is located at each of the yoke splits with one of the positioning lugs attached to each yoke half. Tightening the holding screw on the nipple provides a seal and locks the hinged positioning plate on the positioning lugs.
Loosening the holding screw breaks the seal and provides a means by which the operator can determine whether the pig launcher or receiver trap has been completely relieved of internal pressure. Continued loosening of the hold screw will allow disengagement of the positioning plate from the positioning lugs, permitting the yoke halves to be spread and the closure to be opened. There are several manufacturers of end closures, but most often Tube Turns or Modco closures are used worldwide.
Elbows and pipe bends installed in the pipeline should have a minimum radius of three times the main-line pipe diameter—3D bends. Intelligent pigs may require greater radius to diameter elbows and bends because of the longer length of the pigs. Hot taps greater than 6-in.
If possible, tees should not be installed adjacent to one another. Pig runs of between 50 to miles are normal, but pig runs exceeding miles should be avoided as the pig may wear and get stuck in the line. Cleaning pigs may be constructed of steel body with polyurethane cups or discs and foam pigs with polyurethane wrapping, solid urethane disc, and steel body with metallic brushes. Drying pigs are usually low-density foam or multicup urethane. The intelligent pigs may be:. Internal-coating pigs are generally multicup urethane type.
Batching pigs are typically bidirectional, multidisk rubber, which maintain efficiency up to 50 miles. Pigs used for obstruction inspection are typically urethane, multicup type fitted with an aluminum gauge plate or a gel type. Foam pigs have to be significantly oversized. Foam pigs 1 to 6 in. The receiving end of the pipeline should have surge containment to accommodate the slugs of liquid carried by the pigs. For liquid lines, additional storage capacity tankage will provide surge containment.
Gas and multiphase lines need specially designed "slug" catcher systems to handle the intermittent liquid slugs generated by the pigging activities. When a normal gas flow is pushing the pig through a gas pipeline, the velocity can be quite large and the flow rate of liquids being pushed ahead is given by Eq.
Use this section for citation of items referenced in the text to show your sources. Chin, J. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. Combe, D. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Fung, G. Offshore Technology Conference. Li, D. International Petroleum Technology Conference. Zainal Abidin, S. Condition-Based Pigging for Pipeline Network. How does pipeline pigging work by Rigzone. Pigging By Wikipedia. What do we really know about pipeline pigging and cleaning? By Randy L. Piping and pipeline systems.
Pipeline design consideration and standards. Pressure drop evaluation along pipelines. Jump to: navigation , search. Pipeline pigs are devices that are placed inside the pipe and traverse the pipeline. Category : 4. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Read Discussion. Views Read View source View history. Navigation Main page Recent changes Random page Help.
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Non Return Valves mainly used in water line to control the flow of water. They are generally installed inside the piping system where they block the back flow of liquids. The other application we see all the time for air blow checks is in PIG operations. A pressure warning device is located at each of the yoke splits with one of the positioning lugs attached to each yoke half. This range of valves are made employing finest grade raw material and cutting-edge techniques under the supervision of trained professionals Phone no : Phone no. The Assured Automation product line consists of a complete offering of standardized automated valve assemblies with a variety of commonly used accessory items.
Rubber check valves and pigging. ProFlex™ Styles 711/731
The Y30D features 3 ports, degrees apart. The plug is designed with a long radius transition between ports to allow for efficient passage of the plug through the valve.
There are no cavities around the plug where additional media can build up. This design allows for a majority of the product to be removed by the pig, reducing the amount of time required for the sterilization cycle. The addition of the Y30D Series valve has proven a success for the customer. Sterilization cycle times have been reduced saving the amount of steam needed which resulted in a tremendous cost savings. Production line downtime is reduced, improving efficiency.
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Pigging - Wikipedia
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All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the copyright owners. It is not intended to be an instructional manual, but rather a general guide to pigs and pigging practices.
In general. About tlic authors: Jim Cordell has bccn actiicl! Sccrctan, and Tcclinical Adviser for almost a decade. He also traveled to inan! I n he startcd his consulting services coiiccrniiig pigging and otlicr pipclinc maintcnnncc applications. H TecnoMarine Plugging Pig 6. Williamson Inc. Systems 9. Pig Maintenance Records 13A-1 13b. Terminology used in the Pipeline Pigging Industry 13C-1 13d. Abbreviations and Acronyms 13D-1 13e. Descriptions of Pipeline Imperfections and Conditions 13E-1 13f.
Pigging Test Loops - World-wide 13F-1 13g. Useful Conversion Tables 13G-1 13h. Products and Services 16B-1 16c. They earned the name of "Go- product flow. A pig is in effect a free moving Devil" and such pigs are still occasionally used piston.
Occasionally other words are used, today to clean short pipes which are carryliig a such as rabbit or mole and in some countries, high percentage of sot? Even here however, there are more modem pigs which could generally perform the The term "pig" originated in the United States, tasks significantly better.
There are various Today there are over pigs of all types, a theories, but tlie most widely accepted large number of specialist services and several explanation is that the screeching soiuid made thousand related products. Selection of the as the early pigs traveled through the pipeline, correct ones and the design of an optimum together with their brushes and their appearance pigging system will depend upon a great many, when they emerged covered in crude oil, in often seeniingly unimportant factors.
The suggestion that PIG was an acronyn for There are at present no recognized national or Pipeline Inspection Gauge is highly unlikely as international standards for the design, the tern1 was used long before inspection construction or operation of pigs or pigging became a sigiificant factor. But there are industry ''norms1'wliich have resulted from long experience and which, Pigs were originally used exclusively for if they are understood and followed, will cleaning a pipeline.
There is no documented contribute to troublefree operation. These early pigs are believed to have and are far from comprehensive. This manual been made on site from straw wrapped with is intended to resolve many o f these problems.
Other stories tell of tlie earliest 'pigs' being simply bundles of rags. These it is The terms and phrases used in this manual are said were replaced by bundles of leather those nomially used in the pipeline piggng because this was not only stronger, but would industry. For those who are not entirely swell when it was wetted and so gave a good familiar with this, it is strongly recommended seal in tlie pipe. It is generally agreed that a pipeline should be for large diameter, long distance transport pigged, but the reasons for doing so are not pipelines.
It is therefore important to between certain points , others are built for clearly define the reasons at the very beginning strategic often military , political, or and the following will provide some guidance in international trading purposes. Whatever the reason, it is certain that the 2.
Often, this is too late. The What is not always appreciated is that such damage has been done and a multi-million decisions presuppose that these two dollar investment is put at risk. It is not sufficient Use of the correct type of pig and a proper to simply design and construct the pipeline on pigging program will help to maintain the the basis of continuous operation and optimum integnty and optimum efficiency of the pipeline; efficiency, it must be kept that way.
Pigs play a major role in both obtaining and maintaining the 'two fundamentals': A pipeline is arguably the most efficient method yet devised for transporting fluids - whether 1.
They help to maintain continuous operation gases or liquids. Its relative efficiency though, by: depends upon two fundamental requirements: - removing any substance which might damage the pipeline process systems 1. It must operate continuously. The required throughput must be - providing timely information of any obtained with the least capital developing problems investment and the lowest operating - providing data on any perceived costs.
Even so, the capital and down for statutory periodic testing. They help to obtain and maintain maximum increased by 4. However, it must be remembered that the level of the contribution made to both the efficiency Once corrosion, particularly pitting or channel of the pipeline and to its protection will depend corrosion has occurred, it is unlkely that a pig upon the pigging program and the effectiveness will be able to remove the water whch will of the pigs whch are used. Under any given set accumulate in these recesses.
It is therefore of circumstances there will be significant advisable to include batch inhibition running a variations in the performance of different types slug of inhibitor between two pigs as part of of pig and even between different makes of the any corrosion control program. However, the use of virtually any pig will be better than none at all.
Some elementary calculations will prove the point. Consider a simple short, straight section of a 12" mm water line. After subsea the initial ten year period, all oil and gas pipelines must be inspected every seven years. For general maintenance and repair i Corrosion inhibition However, as already stated, the actual ii Pre-inspection cleaning requirements will vary depending upon the iii Decommissioning individual circumstances and operators must iv Isolation develop their Intregrity Management Plan in v Recommissioning close consultation with their own legal advisers and the Authorities - typically the Office of During renovationhehabilitation Pipeline Safety OPS.
Today, iv Inerting pigging is required during each phase in the life of a pipeline - for many different reasons, When considering any of the above typically: applications, it should be remembered that each pipeline is different.
They have lfferent During construction diameters, lengths, contents, geometry, 1 Removing construction debris operating pressures and temperatures, from the line. They ii Acceptance testing water are also built by different contractors and have filling, dewatering, etc. They will also have to be constructed and During operation operated in accordance with different Codes i Pipe wall cleaning and comply with requirements of different ii Condensate removal Authorities.
Pig selection and the pigging iii Product separation batchmg program must therefore be tailored to suit the iv Applying inhibitors particular need as well as the characteristics of the individual pipeline and its operation. Pigs perform best if they are run at a near It is always necessary to provide some means of constant speed, therefore it is necessary to restraining the pig at the receiving end of the provide some means of speed control other than pipe while releasing the pressure ahead of the a constant input.
If this control is not provided pig. If the restraining device is not provided, the pig may stop at a minor obstruction and the the pig can become a projectile propelled by the pressure behind the pig will increase until the compressed air behind the pig, similar to the pig moves. The pig then moves at a faster pace action of an air rifle. This is often The catching devices can be as simple as a field referred to as a 'speed excursion'.
Often the One means of providing better control is to receiving end of the pipeline is closed with a close the downstream end of the pipe section, weld cap equipped with piping for controlling pressurize the entire section and then, by the release of the product and therefore the pig's releasing pressure downstream as air is inserted speed.
Many contractors will build temporary upstream, it will be easier to maintain a pig launching and receiving devices that are constant differential pressure and therefore a reused during the construction of the pipeline.
Usually, the first application is Even so, several pig runs may be necessary to when the contractor runs a cleaning pig to clean remove all the debris. Because as the pipeline is being assembled. Apart from offshore operations are much more costly, removing sand, stones, welding rods, rags, and several steps may be combined. In spite of other debris which will invariably be left inside sometimes very strict specifications on the pipe, this procedure has been known to cleanliness during construction, some debris remove lunch buckets, construction skids, wild will still accumulate.
Subsea pipelines are generally laid in very long sections which are capped and laid down on the As with many procedures on a pipeline, any sea bed. The ends are then tied in at some later steps that can be carried out before the pipeline stage. The "lay-down head" used at each end of is sealed will usually be easier than working the section on these lines is similar to the test with a closed system.
A clean pipeline is end on a land line and is basically a very long required before a successful survey can be pig trap. It may have to hold a large number of accomplished using either a gauging pig or an pigs, sometimes of different types, which need instrumented pig to ensure that the pipe has to be launched and received separately.
To do been laid properly. These operations are therefore factors associated with the pipeline such as its normally sub-contracted to a competent pigging diameter and length, the topography, whether it service company. However, the arduous duty of a contractors 2. This allows for some of the oval shape the pipe Pigging with a gauging pig during the may have in the unpressurized condition as well construction process can be one of the most as for any ovality caused by field bends.
Since a In the early days of pipelining the gauging pipeline is designed to deliver a certain plates were made of steel and when gas welding throughput based on a minimum diameter, it is was used the plates may have had hard therefore necessary to be sure that the minimum surfacing applied to the outside diameter to diameter is not lost during the laying process.
The oldest means of gauging this minimum diameter is by installing a plate on a pig. The noise maker might have been a dragging chain, or various types and shapes of rollers, gears or sprockets. This was a means for finding areas where the pipe had been damaged by material left in the bottom of the ditch or by material back-filled onto the pipe. Williamson, Inc Once the obstructions have been removed it is then necessary to rerun the gauging pig to When steel gauging flanges were used they verify that all pipe diameter reductions have were almost always placed on the front of the been removed from that section of the pipeline.
The aluminum It may also be used in larger size pipelines gauging plates are usually installed between the provided the wall thickness is sufficient for the pig seals so that the gauging plate will be pipe to stay in a near round shape while protected from any damage other than that unpressurized, but after the pipe is covered.
If the aluminum plate traverses the When the pipeline is subsea the procedures for pipe section without damage, it is evidence that running and tracking a gauging pig must be the pipe does not have any reductions of modified. The pig may need to be bi-directional concern. Some aluminum gauging plates are in case it contacts an obstruction that it cannot made of a soft aluminum to reduce spring back pass. It could then be pumped back to the point and some are cut into segments to help identify of origin.
The location of such an obstruction the shape of any restriction. It may be may be estimated by monitoring the gas or important to know whether the pipe is reduced liquid injected into the pipeline to propel the in diameter in an oval shape or if the reduction gauging pig. Electronic tracking devices may is over a small area as may occur due to a dent also be used. If the gauging plate is damaged, then it becomes necessary to However, whether a pipeline is onshore or find the obstruction and make a repair.
These offshore, using a gauging pig can be an obstructions may have been located by the extended operation if an obstruction is found. The fault or faults must be repaired 2.