The music of Latin America refers to music originating from Latin America , namely the Romance -speaking countries and territories of the Americas and the Caribbean south of the United States. During the 20th century, many styles were influenced by the music of the United States giving rise to genres such as Latin pop , rock , jazz , hip hop , and reggaeton. Geographically, it usually refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of Latin America,  but sometimes includes Francophone countries and territories of the Caribbean and South America as well. It also encompasses Latin American styles that have originated in the United States such as salsa and Tejano. The tango is perhaps Argentina's best-known musical genre, famous worldwide.
Currently, Reggaeton is very popular in modern Mexico. The music in southern Mexico is particularly represented by its use of the marimbawhich has its origins in the Soconusco region between Mexico and Guatemala. The term "Latin music" muxic from the US due to the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the Latin and american music mixed music market, with Kimiko from xialin showdown hentai pioneers including Xavier Cugat s and Tito Puente s and then accelerating in later decades. Trini is a son of an immigrant Mexican couple, who was born in Houston TX. Latin music is the result of a complex social and historical process that took place in the Americas after the arrival Latin and american music mixed Columbus. Candombea style of drumming descended from African slaves in the area, is quintessentially Uruguayan although it is americna to a lesser extent in Argentina. Corridos narrative, folk music became widely popular in Revolutionary times around depicting the country's current affairs in war, politics and society. Surviving instruments provide some indication of sound quality and pitch but not any precise way of determining scales or melodies. Veloso's and Gil's album Tropicalia ou Panis et Circensis became a dividing line in Brazilian culture. Bandoneon player Anibal Troilo ruled the s.
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Archived from the original XLS on 29 October The amerixan reason for this event was Dennis rodman dating gina peterson prove a point to stop discrimination Butler gerard paparazzi Afro descendants and other ethnic groups in Guatemala. Archived from the original on 11 December Unfortunately, months before the release of her English album, Selena was murdered by her fan club president, on 31 Marchin Corpus Christi, Texas. Creador Pictures. This article has multiple issues. The growth of Latin music musicc resulted for the opportunity for female Latin artists to dominate in the music industry as well. Retrieved April 24, The album debuted at Latin and american music mixed three on the U. The first Mexican-Texan pop star was Latin and american music mixed Mendozawho began her music recording in Africa Now! Grupo Editorial Zacatecas, S. Selena's songs " Dreaming of You " and " I Could Fall In Love " quickly became mainstream hits, and the album became among the "Top ten best-selling debuts of all time" along with being among the "best-selling debuts for a female artist".
J Balvin, Ozuna and Karol G have all become global hit-makers with reggaeton and trap songs.
- The term may also refer to historical or cultural elements in Latin America thought to have emanated from this community.
- The words 'Latin America' are used to describe the group of 21 countries listed below in the American continent where Latin languages are spoken.
- Latin American music has long influenced popular American music, including jazz , rhythm and blues , and even country music ; and both Latin American music and American music have been strongly influenced by African music.
These are excerpts from my book "A History of Popular Music" Latin America has produced a variety of genres born at the crossroads of European folk music, African music and native traditions.
While not as popular as the popular music of the USA also born out of the integration of European music and African music , Latin American genres shares the same characters that made it a universal koine'. During the "belle epoque" s , the working class of the "Boca" of Buenos Aires Argentina invented a new rhythm, the tango.
Tan-go was the name given to the drums of the African slaves, and the music was influenced by both the Cuban habanera and the local milonga. The choreography originally devised in the brothels to mimick the obscene and violent relationship between the prostitute, her pimp and a male rival eventually turned into a dance and a style of music of a pessimistic mood, permeated by a fatalistic sense of an unavoidable destiny, a music of sorrow enhanced by the melancholy sound of the bandoneon.
When lyrics were added, they drew from "lunfardo", the lingo of the underworld the term originally meant "thief". Tango was embraced enthusiastically in Europe and landed in the USA in the s. The Viennese waltz and the Polka had been the first dances to employ the close contact between a male and a female.
The tango pushed the envelope in an even more erotic direction. By that time, tango had already established itself as a major genre among young Argentinians. Roberto Firpo is credited as having set the standard in for all future tango orchestras: the rhythm set by syncopated piano figures, the melodies carried by bandoneon and violin.
Bandoneon player Osvaldo Fresedo and violin player Julio de Caro were among the instrumental stars and composers of the s. From his debut with Mi Noche Triste , the song that introduced lyrics into the tango, to his untimely death in , Carlos Gardel was the most charismatic vocalist, the master of erotic abandon.
Rudolph Valentino created an international sensation in a steamy scene of his film "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" But tango became a more intellectual affair during the s, when literate songwriters created more poetic lyrics.
Representative musicians of the decade are pianist Osvaldo Pugliese Recuerdo and violinist Elvino Vardaro. Bandoneon player Anibal Troilo ruled the s. Tango then became a dogma that allowed very little freedom. It was only in the s that someone dared question the dogma. Argentinian composer Astor Piazzolla mixed tango with classical music to compose works for bandoneon and orchestra, pieces for bandoneon octets and quintets a tango opera, a tango oratorio, etc.
See The 20th century. Cuba was the starting point for many of the Latin dances. At the beginning of the 20th century, Cuba's main music was the "son", a fusion of Spanish popular music and the African rhythm rumba first mentioned in and probably related to the Santeria religion. Traditionally played with tres guitar , contrabass, bongos and claves wooden sticks that set the circular rhythm the son of Cuba was popularized by the likes of Ignacio Pineiro, who had an hit with Echale Salsita , and Miguel Matamores.
The danzon, first documented by Miguel Failde Perez's Las Alturas de Simpson , was a descendant of the French "contredanse" or contradanza, and in Cuba's s the danzon became a version of the son for the upper classes, performed by "charangas" flute and violin orchestras, in which the violin provided the main riff while the flute improvised.
In the s, Spanish-Cuban bandleader Xavier Cugat who formed the Waldorf-Astoria Orchestra in was for Latin music what the Beatles were for rock music: his orchestra created the commercial version of Latin music largely devoid of artistic value but hugely popular for the western masses.
Also during the s, the dance academia of Pierre and Doris Lavelle popularized Latin dancing in Britain it was Pierre Lavelle who codified the moves of the rumba in and the moves of the samba in In the s, Arsenio Rodriguez, a virtuoso of the tres Cuban guitar , set the standard for the Cuban conjunto adding congas, piano and trumpets to the traditional guitar-based sexteto and thus spearheaded a kind of son based on the piano and the congas. For example, Rene' Alvarez, Arsenio's former singer, formed Conjunto Los Astros in , with multiple trumpets and piano.
Basically, the mambo was a danzon for the working class. The chachacha was a midtempo mambo figure that, after the recording of Enrique Jorrin's La Enganadora and especially Perez Prado's Cherry Pink And Apple Blossom White , became a genre of its own, still performed by charangas unlike the mambo, that was performed by smaller combos.
The mambo became a USA craze in A fusion of Cuban music and jazz music or "cubop" became popular after World War II, influencing some of the most important jazz musicians e. The foundations of post-war Latin music were laid by this generation.
Trinidad's calypso, first documented by an instrumental recorded in by by George "Lovey" Bailey's orchestra, was another Latin dance to reach beyond Latin America. Calypso was originally sung in French, but the first recorded calypso song, Julian Whiterose's Iron Duke in the Land , was already in English. Starting with the "Railway Douglas Tent" of Port-of-Spain in , calypso was originally performed in "tents" temporary dancehalls during the period before carnival: the term stuck, and came to denote any club playing calypso.
Most calypso records are still released just before or during carnival season. They all had to travel to New York in order to record their songs.
During the s, Trinidad's musicians developed the concept of the steel band, which dramatically changed the sound of calypso. But it was in the s that calypso became a "craze" in the USA, thanks mainly to Harry Belafonte's Calypso , one of the first albums to sell over one million copies, that contained Banana Boat Song In Cuba in , Los Papines fused the violin-based music of charangas and the trumpet-based music of conjuntos Eduardo Davidson's La Pachanga , recorded by Orquesta Sublime, introduced Cuba to a Colombian dance which was confusingly called "charanga" in the USA.
But, as Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba , the epicenter of Latin music moved to other islands and then south. Puerto Rico had its own tradition of "bomba" and "plena", to which percussionist Rafael Cortijo, leader of a conjunto since , had added trumpets and saxophones El Bombon De Elena. His conjunto and his husky vocalist Ismael Rivera El Nazareno , Quitate de la Via Perico , notorious for the improvised call-and-response vocals of the "sonero" tradition, harked back to the African roots of Caribbean music without any distinction between styles.
Both vocally and rhythmically they created a "sauce" of Caribbean music. In the s, the bomba-son hybrid reached the Puertorican colony in New York. Santamaria, who arrived in New York in , paid tribute to his Cuban roots on Yambu and Mongo , that were performed with other Latin percussionists.
The evolution of son continued in New York via Dominican flutist Johnny Pacheco, leader of the quintessential charanga featuring singer Pete "El Conde" Rodriguez but also the leader of the "Africanization" of the charanga arrangements limited to trumpets, piano and percussion , New York's pianist Charlie Palmieri, who formed in the influential charanga Duboney four violins and Pacheco on flute , New York's pianist Eddie Palmieri, who in pioneered "trombanga", a sound based on two trombones and a flute in alternative to the charanga sound , New York's percussionist Ernesto "Tito" Puente Oye Como Va , , New York's drummer Ray Barretto, who experimented with rhythm'n'blues and jazz, Puertorican bongo player Roberto Roena Mi Desengano , They all crossed over into jazz and rhythm'n'blues.
A key event in was the meeting between Puertorican vocalist Ismael Miranda then still a teenager and the orchestra of New York's pianist Larry Harlow, best documented on Abran Paso They revitalized the CUban sound for the audience of rock music. See Re-Alignment. In Puerto Rico salsa is also known as "guaguanco", a term that originally referred to a kind of rumba dance.
Larry Harlow's orchestra rediscovered the fusion of charanga violins and conjunto trumpets with the addition of electric instruments on his milestone recording Salsa with vocalist Junior Gonzalez. The concert "Salsa" organized in New York by the label Fania launched the fad nation-wide.
In the s, the main centers for salsa were New York, Miami, and Colombia. Ruben Blades , who had become Willie Colon's main composer after El Cazangero , contaminated salsa with rock'n'roll and political issues on Siembra , that contains Pedro Navaja and became the best-selling salsa album of all times.
The "voice" of salsa was Hector Lavoe', Colon's vocalist, whose best album was Comedia , featuring the anthemic El Cantante , written by Blades and arranged by Colon. The new sound of salsa owed to people like ubiquitous Puertorican trumpeter Luis "Perico" Ortiz and producer Louie Ramirez, whose album A Different Shade Of Black is credited with crossing over to pop music.
But salsa was becoming a very vague term, as New York's group Tipica 73 proved on albums such as La Candela , which is really a mixture of Latin dance rhythms. In the s, a new dance was added to the Latin recipe: the Dominican Republic's merengue, yet another by-product of the Cuban habanera.
The origins of the meringue actually go back centuries it was already mentioned in writings of , and the style can be said to have existed since at least the s, and popularized by Angel Viloria in the s. During the s, Trinidad coined a mixture of calypso and soul "soul-calypso" that during the s targeted the discos.
Calypso itself was torn between the revolutionary pressure coming from David Rudder, whose The Hammer was influenced by pop and soul, and the conservative attitude of Leroy "Black Stalin" Calliste, whose Caribbean Man harked back to the classics.
Brazil's colonial history is unique in that the dominant white class showed some tolerance for the black slave class and the native pagans. The latter's traditions range from the African-derived voodoo or, better, Candomble religion of Bahia to Rio's Macumba religion. Unlike Mexico and Peru, where the original cultures were erased by the Spanish colonizers, Brazil retained them and simply recycled them into the general "saudade" melancholy existentialism of the Portuguese conquerors.
The fundamental dichotomy of Brazilian music is between Bahia and Rio. Bahia is the Brazilian equivalent of New Orleans: a melting pop where African traditions mixed with local and European concepts. Rio is both the capital of the aristocracy, where European culture was imported, and the underworld of the slums, where poor black and white immigrants from the rest of Brazil including Bahia lived in miserable conditions. In the last decades of the 19th century, the orchestras of Rio de Janeiro basically, woodwinds and horns, with the clarinet as the soloist that performed European dance music such as waltzes and polkas were called "choro".
Joaquim Antonio da Silva Calado, the band-leader of Choro Carioca, revolutionized the style by emphasizing virtuoso playing and improvisation, and by introducing the cavaquinho and the violao a seven-string guitar. After him, the choro orchestras preferred the flute as the soloist, the violao as the bass, and cavaquinho as the rhythm. The great composers of choro were Chiquinha Gonzaga a female and a pianist and Ernesto Nazareth.
But the choro ensembles abhored the African percussion instruments. The first appearance of the word "samba" dates from The "samba" was originally a dance of African origins, the mesemba, which came from Bahia and was probably related to the Candomble rituals. It wed a Brazilian dance, the "maxixe", which was an evolution of the habanera a European dance craze created by Maurice Mouvet in on the basis of the Cuban habanera and of the polka, and soon became a musical genre in its own.
The samba was probably invented by African-Brazilians in the working-class slums of Rio de Janeiro. The rhythm of the samba was designed as as to fulfill three roles: to sing, to dance and to parade at the carnival. The first record to be advertised as "samba" was a song by a black musician, Ernesto "Donga" dos Santos: Pelo Telefone Manuel "Duque" Diniz, a white Brazilian who had opened a maxixe academy in Paris, spread the samba dance craze to Europe in , when he invited Os Oito Batutas, a black choro ensemble led by flutist and composer Pixinguinha "the Bach of choro" which included Donga on guitar, on a tour to Paris.
The combo brought the samba to Paris, but also brought something back to Brazil: trumpet, trombone, saxophone and banjo were added to the line-up, and the sound became more "Americanized", adapting to the sound of big-band jazz. Pixinguinha's Carinhoso was emblematic of the new style. A young white musician from the Rio middle class, Noel Rosa, became famous with the samba song Com que Roupa? The first samba school was founded in in Rio, and samba schools proliferated in the s.
Samba was the generic name of the music employing a kind of rhythm, but there were different kinds of samba. Perhaps the most adventurous and extreme was the batucada. A batucada can be played by ensembles with hundreds of percussionists. In Bahia, bloco afro and afoxe two mainly percussive styles combined to form samba-reggae. The choro was not dead: in fact, composers of the s such as Benedito "Canhoto" Lacerda created most of the choro repertory.
The next major stylistic revolution took place in the s: when white young middle-class intellectuals merged a gentler, slower form of the samba with jazz music, and shifted the lead to the guitar, bossanova was born. Thus, it was a music of the bourgeoisie, not of the working class.
Indeed, bossanova songs left behind the underworld of samba, where people struggled to make a living, and shifted to the world of beaches, romance and lazy bohemian life. And, in fact, bossanova soon became a favorite style of easy-listening and lounge music.
After Jobim composed the classic Desafinado , the two released Cancao do Amor Demais , featuring Eliseth Cardoso on vocals and Joao Gilberto on guitar, which contained Jobim's Chega de Saudade , the song that established bossanova in Brazil. Jobim and Morais also wrote Garota de Ipanema , which turned bossanova into a world-wide phenomenon.
Both Jobim hits got their definitive shape on Joao Gilberto's singles, notably Girl from Ipanema , a collaboration with Stan Getz.
The most prestigious Latin American music awards in Spanish in the United States are broadcast by the two biggies Spanish networks Univision and Telemundo. The popularity of Latin music has increased over the years. These countries are all located south of the US-Mexico border, starting with Mexico in North America, extending through Central America and parts of the Caribbean and down into the southernmost tip of South America - the region known as Tierra del Fuego. Honduras . Atlanta Black Star.
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Latin American music and dance
Latin American music , musical traditions of Mexico , Central America , and the portions of South America and the Caribbean colonized by the Spanish and the Portuguese. These traditions reflect the distinctive mixtures of Native American , African, and European influences that have shifted throughout the region over time. This article surveys religious, folk, and art informally, classical music through time and over the hemisphere.
After a brief discussion of the uses of music in preconquest cultures for further treatment, see Native American music , the narrative turns to how Europeans introduced Iberian church music and began the hybridization of musical practices in both the religious and the folk realms. At the same time, imported art music practices became part of the colonial cultures and were in turn infused with local and regional flavours. By the 21st century various national musical characteristics had asserted themselves in all types of musical practice, while international trends flowed into the regional musical stream as well.
Music and dance are interdependent, and to some extent dance is part of the music story, especially in the sacred and secular folk realm.
As folk dances transformed into social and ballroom dances current around the world in the 21st century, and as popular music traveled with emigrants, Latin American music and dance have become important in other places, especially the United States. Current Hispanic popular music and dance are beyond the scope of this article. These are discussed in Latin American dance as well as individual articles such as merengue , rumba , salsa , and tango.
These cultures ranged from isolated and technologically primitive peoples to highly organized societies with advanced technological knowledge. Little is known about the musical activities or systems of these precolonial civilizations, but available sources do afford glimpses into the roles of music in the most-advanced cultures. These sources include surviving musical instruments , dictionaries of Indian languages compiled by early European missionaries, chronicles written by Europeans of the 16th century, and, for Mesoamerica, a substantial number of pre-Columbian Mexican codices.
A codex is a manuscript in book form. Some scholars have studied the musical cultures of isolated indigenous communities of the 20th century as a means to understanding the past; although such an approach may be somewhat useful, it is not wise to assume that traditions are continuous and uninfluenced over centuries. The type of ancient Mesoamerican music that is best-documented is the ritual music of the courts primarily Aztec and Mayan.
Music performance often allied with dance is depicted as a large-ensemble activity, in which numerous participants variously play instruments, sing, or dance. The 8th-century murals of the Bonampak temple, for example, show a procession with trumpets, drums, and rattles.
To an extent that is remarkable in light of their numerous differences in other artistic and cultural realms, the different cultures from at least the 8th century to the early 16th century used similar instruments. Drums and wind instruments , primarily flutes , are commonly described in texts and found in artifacts. The teponaztli , a two-key slit drum played with a mallet, and the huehuetl , a single-headed cylindrical upright drum played with bare hands, occupied a special position in Aztec rituals and were considered sacred instruments.
Many of the archaeological examples of these drums carry elaborate carvings with glyphs and drawings that reveal symbolically their ritual uses and functions. Comparable instruments served essential functions for the Maya. Many flutes from Mesoamerican cultures survive. Among the Aztec they were known generically as tlapizalli. An especially intriguing type of flute found near the Gulf of Mexico coast consists of two, three, or four tubes sounded from a single mouthpiece.
Such instruments prove the existence of harmonic possibilities, up to four notes simultaneously, but it is not known how they were used. Ancient Mesoamericans did not develop musical notation , and the Spanish did not transcribe music they heard. Surviving instruments provide some indication of sound quality and pitch but not any precise way of determining scales or melodies. In the Inca empire, extant evidence also documents the use of music in religious ritual contexts.
As was the case for Mesoamerica, in the Andean region instrumental music seems to have predominated, with large ensembles performing on flutes and panpipes , accompanied by drums, including the characteristic small, double-headed tinya of the Inca.
The end-notched vertical flute known in Quechua as the quena was held sacred. Early examples had four finger holes, but many later flutes had five or six; some scholars have drawn conclusions about scale possibilities from the number and placement of finger holes.
Another group of Andean vertical flutes was called pincollos or pincullus. The panpipes antaras of the Nazca , adopted by the Inca , had from 3 to 15 pipes and could produce microtonal music. Trumpets commonly appear throughout the region. The large conch trumpet was an instrument of war. The Bonampak murals of the Maya show long, straight trumpets that may have been made of wood or gourds. Incan trumpets, qquepas , could be made of conch shell, clay, or metal. Many aspects of music were standardized, such as the appropriate use of particular instruments or functions of particular songs.
For the Inca, Quechua language dictionaries reveal certain ideals and practices. Specific terms distinguished between correct and incorrect singing and between low and high voice.
Taki , a term designating dance, song , or both, could be used to describe a song of lament memorializing the life of an emperor or a local chief. Exactly how the songs were performed is unclear, but the mestizo half Spanish, half Incan historian Garcilaso de la Vega mentions in his Comentarios reales written within a century of the conquest of the Inca that each song text had its own unique melody. The reconstruction and evocation of the pre-Columbian musical past in Mesoamerica and the Andes remain speculative.
Significantly, Spanish chroniclers active in Mexico in the 16th century noted that there was some affinity between the Spanish and the Indians with regard to the emotional tone of music. In particular, a song that was considered sad by the Indians apparently had the same sense for Spaniards who did not understand the text.
Such an affinity might at least in part explain the ease with which the Indians assimilated the European musical system. Like the Mesoamerican and Andean peoples , the Caribbean Indians used music in ritual observances. Any possibility of musical continuity from pre-Columbian times into the colonial period in the Caribbean islands was lost with the rapid decimation of Indian populations caused by the spread of European diseases , the conditions of forced labour , intertribal wars, and mass suicide.
Latin American music. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction History Pre-Columbian patterns Colonial period — Early European influences Early influences on folk music Art music in the national period —present The 19th century The early 20th century The late 20th century and beyond Folk and popular music Regional styles and genres Characteristic instruments. See Article History. Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today.
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